Tag Archives: Tungsten

Tungsten West cuts CAPEX with new Hemerdon feasibility study plan

An updated feasibility study on Tungsten West’s Hemerdon project in Devon, England, has brought with it a processing re-optimisation program that includes a complete redesign of the front-end crushing circuit at the mine, a process that, it says, will considerably reduce the capital expenditure associated with this development.

The new study outlined average annual production of 2,900 t of WO3 in concentrate and 310 t of tin in concentrate over a life of mine of 27 years, along with an average steady-state mining rate of 3.5 Mt/y.

The changes to the existing process flowsheet to be implemented at Hemerdon can be categorised into three areas, namely:

  • Front end upgrades – new crushing, screening and ore sorting circuit required for Phase 1 (average of 2.4 Mt/y of granite ore, years 1-2);
  • Existing minerals processing facility modifications – upgrades to existing plant to accommodate production requirements for Phase 1; and
  • Phase 2 (3.5 Mt/y of granite ore, year 3 onwards) crushing and process plant expansion – future upgrades to both crushing and processing plants required for increased production rates, envisaged from year three onwards.

The re-engineering has mainly reduced capital and operating expenses around reduced ore handling costs by the introduction of direct tipping at a newly sited run of mine pad, incorporating the introduction of new semi-mobile primary jaw and secondary cone crushers, new operating parameters for the ore sorting circuit, and, to a lesser extent, changes to the existing dense media separation and fine gravity dressing circuits.

The revised front-end design also includes a significant tactical advantage through the introduction of a secondary crushed ore stockpile ahead of the ore sorters, Tungsten West said. This provides up to circa-40 hours of redundancy capacity to the crushing circuit, thereby de-coupling the front end crushing circuit from the minerals processing facility (MPF) – minimising downtime and maximising availability of the concentrator circuit.

Tungsten West has maintained the ethos of the original feasibility study in continuing to engineer-out as many operational, mechanical, electrical or ESG issues associated with the previous operation as possible and to ensure MPF availability and operability remains a priority, it said.

Back in July, Tungsten West concluded a re-evaluation of the options for bringing the Hemerdon mine back into production, announcing a new development plan that would re-optimise the March 2021 Bankable Feasibility Study. The plan was developed in response to global crises in power and diesel prices and the general inflationary environment for construction materials faced by the company.

The new plan has resulted in a remaining capital expenditure, including EPCM fees, of £31.1 million ($38 million) as of October 1.

Mark Thompson, Executive Vice Chairman of Tungsten West, said: “The feasibility study provides solutions to the energy price challenges and will enable increased operating efficiencies at the project. Key highlights from this study include a revised ore delivery and waste mining strategy, a split-phase approach to operational ramp-up to the full design specification, a new primary and secondary crushing method and location, a re-optimisation of the operating strategy for the X-ray Transmission ore sorters, re-design and re-engineering of the feed preparation, ore sorter buildings and structures, and a re-evaluation of the operation of unit processes and expected recoveries.

“We are build-ready at Hemerdon and we look forward to continuing to work with our partners and stakeholders to bring Hemerdon back into production in the fourth (December) quarter of 2023.”

EPC-UK’s rock-on-ground services team heading to Hemerdon tungsten-tin project

EPC-UK says its full rock-on-ground services will soon begin work at the Hemerdon tungsten-tin deposit in Devon, England, as part of a new contract it has secured.

The company’s work will begin in 2023 and will enable operator, Tungsten West Ltd, to benefit from EPC-UK’s skilled level of drilling and blasting expertise as it sustainably extracts specific critical minerals, it says.

The reopened Hemerdon mine comprises the world’s third largest tungsten mineral resource, with a recently-released mining plan envisaging restarting production during the first half of next year.

In terms of mining, Hemerdon will aim to process 2.1 Mt of ore in year one, 2.6 Mt in year two, before ramping up to steady-state production of 3.5 Mt throughput in year three. This targets WO3 in concentrate production of 2,200 t, 3,000 t, 3,900 t, and tin in concentrate production of 320 t, 430 t and 600 t in years 1, 2, and 3 respectively.

In advance of EPC-UK’s rock-on-ground service commencement on site, it has agreed a program of early investment in the Tungsten West project, which has allowed us to fully understand the operation’s requirements and meet the project’s needs, including, among other things, the use of the latest equipment.

This will see the company deliver new Epiroc drilling rigs fitted with autosampler capabilities for drill returns.

Explosive supply to site will also benefit from EPC-UK’s latest smart truck technology supported by the full Vertex software package, which can incorporate drone gathered data and GPS capabilities to refine and improve blast performance, assess against incremental changes in design and subsequently optimise results for customers, the company says.

In terms of digital services, EPC-UK plans to use its digital techniques and engineering expertise, together with subsequent blasting operations, to enable the most efficient ore extraction to realise the most value possible, it said.

Ben Coppock, General Manager Blasting and Explosives at EPC-UK, explained: “We’re keenly anticipating our delivery start date at Hemerdon and look forward to realising results from our joint agenda with customer, Tungsten West. Our business ethos, commitment to safety and levels of expertise are aligned, and we will work successfully and sustainably to meet our mutual greener goals.”

James McFarlane, Managing Director of Tungsten West, said: “Tungsten West has full confidence in EPC-UK as a drilling and blasting rock-on-ground provider. The preparations the team has already put in place in advance of contract work commencing is impressive and demonstrates complete customer focus and a commitment to achieving leaner operations. The reopening of the Hemerdon Mine and its promise to bring sustainable economic activity back to the area is a significant development and we anticipate the results that EPC-UK and Tungsten West will deliver.”

TOMRA XRT ore sorters providing Mt Carbine with tungsten upgrade, circular economy advantages

TOMRA X-Ray Transmission (XRT) sorters are providing a game-changing solution for the EQ Resources-owned Mt Carbine mine in Queensland, Australia, reducing costs and achieving high-purity tungsten ore for follow-on processing while contributing to a circular economy by producing green aggregates for sale, the ore sorting company says.

The Mt Carbine mine, northwest of Cairns, Queensland, was acquired by EQ Resources in 2019. The company entered a joint venture with Cronimet Group to set up tungsten extraction from the mine’s large waste dump and tailings. It is also planning to operate the open pit and underground mine, of which it has full ownership.

EQ Resources management has a long-standing relationship with TOMRA, having used its sorters with success on a variety of projects since 2011, TOMRA says. Based on this experience, the company turned to TOMRA once again for the Mt Carbine mine, with test work conducted at TOMRA’s Test Center in Wedel, Germany, confirming its XRT technology would provide the solution for the project.

“We were confident it would work, but we sent a small sample for testing to make sure,” Kevin MacNeill, CEO of Mt Carbine mine, EQ Resources, said. “The advantage of TOMRA’s sorters compared to others is in the image resolution: it is able to resolve the finer inclusions in the tungsten. This high resolution gives us better recovery and more control over the sorting process.”

Mt Carbine is currently mining the 12 Mt of low-grade historical stockpiles. The ore is crushed and screened at 6 mm and 40 mm. Two TOMRA XRT sorters are used to pre-concentrate the feed in the 6-40-mm-size range before processing in the wet plant. Approximately 10% of the sorters’ feed mass is ejected as product with a recovery of tungsten of well over 90%. This means only 10% of the mass is processed in the wet plant, dramatically cutting running costs, reducing the required size of the wet plant, as well as saving water and energy, TOMRA says.

“We let the technology do the work for us and take out all the rubbish and we’re left with just the pure tungsten to send to the processing plant – and we do that very cheaply using the sorters,” MacNeill says. “One of the best things about the TOMRA XRT is the cost savings to the operation. It costs approximately A$1.5/t ($1.02/t) to sort and then it costs A$14/t for wet processing: as we take out 90% of the sortable fraction mass, we only have to process 10% of the higher grade concentrate and natural -6 mm material while maintaining recovery, so our cost benefit is obvious.

“We couldn’t afford to run this waste dump if we had to crush everything to 6mm and process it through the wet plant, it would be too low grade and costly.”

EQ Resources is also taking advantage of the TOMRA XRT sorters to create an additional revenue stream from the waste material.

MacNeil explained: “Normally you would grind the waste down to 6 mm and put it through the jigs, but, by putting it through the TOMRA sorters, we are able to keep a whole range of aggregates on the coarser size fractions. The sorters remove any material containing acid-forming sulphides and the waste rock that comes out is incredibly clean. We are, therefore, able to use it in making all kinds of different quarry products – from road bases to concrete aggregates. It’s a perfect example of a circular economy.”

“Selling these green aggregates adds a significant portion to our business – about A$5 million a year – and that’s all because of the TOMRA sorters. In fact, we’ve probably paid for each machine from this revenue five times over.”

The TOMRA XRT sorters are delivering both environmental and business benefits to the Mt Carbine operation, to the satisfaction of MacNeill: “They’re dry, they create no water usage, they require very little power compared to what we use in the processing plant, so it’s a real advantage to us to have these, and we’re looking at purchasing a third one in the near future.

“From an environmental point of view, I think the TOMRA sorters will play a huge role in the future because of their capability of removing sulphides. If you remove sulphide before stockpiling waste rock, you will have the benefit of no acid creation and drainage – and it would reduce your footprint in your closure plans.”

Tungsten West breaks ground at Hemerdon for TOMRA XRT ore sorters

Tungsten West says it has broken ground at its Hemerdon tungsten-tin mine in Devon, England, with the first sod turned for the installation of the TOMRA X-ray Transmission (XRT) sensor-based ore sorters.

This event, the company says, marks another major step in the company’s upgrade and refurbishment plans for the project’s processing plant.

Hemerdon is, Tungsten West says, the third largest tungsten resource globally, as well as being a previously producing mine that was operational from 2015-2018. Tungsten West purchased the Hemerdon Mine in 2019, and has since completed a bankable feasibility study that demonstrated an extensive reserve of approximately 63.3 Mt at 0.18% W and 0.03% Sn, as well as 37.4 Mt of saleable aggregate material. The company estimates that the life of mine is currently 18.5 years with the opportunity to extend this through future investment.

As announced earlier this month, the company took receipt of important long-lead equipment items, including the seven XRT ore sorters, which will make up part of the upgraded equipment the company plans to install into the front end of the processing plant. The XRT ore sorter will substantially improve and streamline operations once production restarts, minimising plant downtime, increasing recovery as well as a host of ESG benefits, it said.

After significant test work, Tungsten West engaged TOMRA to supply the seven units that are required to treat the run of mine throughput. This consists of six duty units and one standby unit. Orders and deposits for these units were placed in 2021 and the units have now been delivered to the UK and await final transfer to Hemerdon where they will be installed in the front end of the processing plant.

Additionally, the company is pleased to announce the appointment of James McFarlane as Managing Director of Tungsten West. McFarlane previously held the position of Technical & Operations Director of the company.

Max Denning, Tungsten West CEO, said: “We are extremely excited to have broken ground at Hemerdon this week, marking an important milestone in the project’s restart. Ensuring the UK and the western hemisphere have got access to two key critical minerals has never been more profound. We are also delighted to announce James as our new Managing Director; his extensive experience will prove invaluable in the company’s development as we move closer to first production at Hemerdon.”

Tungsten West makes EPCM progress at Hemerdon as TOMRA XRT ore sorters hit the road

Tungsten West has named Fairport Engineering Limited as its engineering, procurement and construction management (EPCM) contractor at the Hemerdon tungsten-tin project, in the UK, as well as confirmed it was soon expecting to receive seven X-ray Transmission (XRT) sensor-based ore sorters from TOMRA.

Since successfully listing on the AIM Market of the London Stock Exchange, Tungsten West has been advancing the development of Hemerdon, which is one of the most advanced mining projects in England and is expected to be a key future global supplier of tungsten and tin.

Hemerdon is, Tungsten West says, the third largest tungsten resource globally, as well as being a previously producing mine that was operational from 2015-2018. Tungsten West purchased the Hemerdon Mine in 2019, and has since completed a bankable feasibility study that demonstrated an extensive reserve of approximately 63.3 Mt at 0.18% W and 0.03% Sn, as well as 37.4 Mt of saleable aggregate material. The company estimates that the life of mine is currently 18.5 years with the opportunity to extend this through future investment.

On top of the ore sorters, Tungsten West said the rest of the long-lead items had been ordered and were scheduled for delivery within the company’s timetable. It plans to recommence mining this year.

The upgrade and refurbishment of the existing processing plant at Hemerdon is centred around the optimisation of the existing concentrator circuit as well as the introduction of a new crushing and screening circuit that will then feed into a new XRT ore sorting stage. These upgrades will streamline processing, minimise plant downtime and improve recovery rates, according to the company.

After significant test work, Tungsten West engaged TOMRA to supply the seven units that are required to treat the run of mine throughput. This consists of six duty and one standby units. Orders and deposits for these units were placed in 2021 and the units have now been delivered to the UK and await final transfer to Hemerdon where they will be installed in the front end of the processing plant.

On top of this, six new screens and 11 vibrating pan feeders have been ordered from Vibramech of South Africa at fixed prices. These will replace the existing large screens, which caused the low frequency issues, and were a key contributor to plant downtime under Wolf Minerals – the previous owner of Hemerdon. Delivery is expected in the June quarter of 2022.

Max Denning, Tungsten West CEO, said: “We are extremely pleased with progress at site, particularly the onboarding of Fairport Engineering to undertake the detailed design and construction of the project. We are looking forward to working with Fairport as we move towards restarting full production at Hemerdon, with a substantially improved processing route, through the introduction of XRT ore sorting and upgraded processing equipment. The company has assembled a strong projects and operations team, and we remain confident in our progress.”

Gekko to build tungsten ore processing plant for Dolphin Mine re-development

Gekko Systems says it has executed a construction contract with Group 6 Metals Limited for the design, procurement, construction and commissioning of the processing plant and related facilities for the redevelopment of G6M’s 100% owned Dolphin Mine, located on King Island, Tasmania.

The contract, which has a value of approximately A$49 million ($35 million), anticipates the commissioning of the facilities in the March quarter of 2023. Based on this timing the first shipment of ore from the Dolphin mine to customers will also occur during the three-month period.

Gekko has been engaged with G6M (formerly King Island Scheelite) over the last three years and, together, the companies have formulated the flowsheet which was developed after extensive independent test work at the ALS laboratory undertaken on behalf of G6M in Burnie, Tasmania.

Following the execution of the contract, G6M is scheduled to commence earthworks early in the March quarter of 2022 in preparation of the civil works commencing soon thereafter.

Group 6 Metals Executive Chairman, Johann Jacobs, said: “We have successfully worked very closely with Gekko over a number of years, which has culminated in us being able to execute this substantial contract so soon after completion of the financing of the project. We look forward to continuing our working relationship with Gekko to ensure a quality facility that is completed on time and within budget.”

Chair of Gekko Systems, Elizabeth Lewis-Gray, added: “This is a critical resource development and an important project for regional Tasmania and Victoria. The team at Gekko are proud to have the opportunity to collaborate on and deliver a quality, locally designed and built process plant solution for Group 6 Metals.”

An October presentation from King Island Scheelite outlined a 400,000 t/y ore operation, producing 275,000 metric tonne units of tungsten oxide.

Tungsten West set to bring Hemerdon tungsten-tin mine back into production

Tungsten West, the mining company focused on recommencing production at the Hemerdon tungsten and tin mine in Devon, England, has announced its intention to proceed with an initial public offering on London’s AIM market.

The company has conditionally raised £39 million ($53 million) before expenses, with plans to debut on the bourse on October 21 with a market capitalisation of approximately £106.2 million.

The net proceeds of the offer, together with the $49 million project financing from a fund managed by Orion Resource Partners, will be used to, among other things, execute the planned capital expenditure and corporate commitments of £44.6 million for improvement works at the Hemerdon Mine, bringing it back into commercial production.

Hemerdon is, Tungsten West says, the third largest tungsten resource globally, as well as being a previously producing mine that was operational from 2015-2018. Tungsten West purchased the Hemerdon Mine in 2019, and has since completed a bankable feasibility study that demonstrated an extensive reserve of approximately 63.3 Mt at 0.18% W and 0.03% Sn, as well as 37.4 Mt of saleable aggregate material. The company estimates that the life of mine is currently 18.5 years with the opportunity to extend this through future investment.

The mine already has the majority of its infrastructure in place, with previous owner Wolf Minerals Ltd having invested over £170 million into the development of the mine and its processing facilities, which include an open-pit mine, mineral processing facility and mine waste facility, the company says. With a substantial amount of existing infrastructure, the development costs associated with re-starting the mine are estimated to be £44.6 million. This existing infrastructure also means that the rebuild is only expected to take 12 months, with parts of the restart project already underway.

Having acquired the mine out of a receivership process, Tungsten West completed a significant amount of work to enable it to understand and address the issues historically experienced by Wolf Minerals, including a 6,113 m geological exploration drilling program and several technical studies. The company has identified the past issues experienced by Wolf Minerals that required rectifying.

“One of the main issues was a poor mineral process route design, with several items of equipment, particularly in the front end of the plant, causing plant downtime and hindering the recovery of the tungsten and tin minerals,” Tungsten West says. “Tungsten West has therefore designated a material proportion of its rebuild costs to modifying and updating the front-end of the processing plant. This will include replacing the existing crushing circuit with new duty and standby primary jaw crushers and secondary cone crushers.”

In addition, the introduction of X-ray Transmission ore sorting, which the company previously carried out tests on with TOMRA Mining in Germany, substantially reduces processing costs by rejecting around 70% of the ore fed to the sorters, it says.

Further upgrades to the plant commenced by the previous operator will be completed, including the dense media separation feed stockpile where 24 hours of surge capacity will be installed, decoupling the front-end of the plant from the concentrator circuit.

“Through these actions, the company expects plant operating time to improve from circa-53% under previous operatorship to the industry standard of circa-81% under Tungsten West,” Tungsten West says.

Tungsten West has identified further opportunities for by-product cash flow through the production and sale of aggregates. A new aggregate plant will be fed with ore sorter rejects and with the waste streams from the processing plant. The business plan is to sell to local aggregate consumers, such as GRS, providing them with a stable, long-term and sustainable source of these materials.

The company says it has implemented a number of initiatives to ensure a minimal impact on the surrounding environment and local community. These include optimising the plants low frequency noise to ensure minimal environmental impact and a fully cash funded £13.2 million restoration bond.

Max Denning, CEO of Tungsten West, says: “With the proposed £39 million raise announced today, and the £36 million funding package from Orion, we will be fully funded for the development of Hemerdon back into production. We look forward to welcoming new investors into this compelling business and working with all our stakeholders to ensure that the newly reinvigorated Hemerdon mine is a beacon of mining excellence in the UK.”

Almonty aims for ‘carbon neutrality’ at Sandong molybdenum mine

Almonty Industries is expanding its current environmental, social and governance (ESG) program at its Panasqueira mine in Portugal and at its Sangdong project (pictured) in South Korea, with the former set to receive a solar facility in the next 12 months and the latter eying up the use of underground electric fleets.

The solar project at Panasqueira, a tungsten mine, will see a 2.52 MW installation implemented over the next 12 months to produce 4.1 million kWh/y of renewable energy, which represents 21.5% of power consumption at the mine.

At the Sangdong tungsten mine, a third-party report will be concluded over the next three months to analyse the asset’s carbon footprint and how best to minimise it. Given the energy from the grid supplied to the Sangdong project is 100% renewable, the company says it has a “unique opportunity” to push towards carbon neutrality at the Korea site. The underground mine is currently under construction.

Lewis Black, Chairman, President and CEO of Almonty, said: “As we transition into the wider financial ETF markets of Asia and Australia, and our visibility continues to increase as a significant producer of the strategic metals of tungsten and molybdenum once Sangdong and Almonty Korea Moly opens, it has become increasingly important to ensure that we are continually reviewing and developing our ESG which sits perfectly in line with the equator principles around which the Sangdong project is being built.”

He added: “The aim for carbon neutrality at Sangdong is potentially achievable once underground electric fleets can maintain a charge for an entire shift, which is estimated to be technically possible within the next 18 months, but we are extremely fortunate that 100% of our energy comes from a renewable source making the target of carbon neutrality achievable.”

SMS group assigned to FEED work at Cinovec lithium project

European Metals Holdings (EMH) has appointed SMS group Process Technologies as the lead engineer for minerals processing and lithium battery-grade chemicals production at the Cinovec project in the Czech Republic.

Cinovec, a joint venture between European Metals (49%) and ČEZ Group (51%, through its subsidiary Severočeské doly), is operated by Geomet. The project has recently received investment of around €29 million ($34 million) of funding from EIT InnoEnergy, the principal facilitator and organiser of the European Battery Alliance, for the project, seeing it through to a construction decision.

Under the agreement, SMS group, a leader in plant construction and mechanical engineering for the technology metals and materials sector, will provide a complete front-end engineering design (FEED) study as the major component of the ongoing definitive feasibility study (DFS) work at Cinovec.

Under the agreement, SMS will provide the following to the Cinovec project:

  • Full process integration from the point of delivery of ore to the underground crusher through to the delivery of finished battery-grade lithium chemicals for battery and cathode manufacturers;
  • The FEED will include all of the process steps – comminution, beneficiation, roasting, leaching and purification;
  • The FEED will encompass both the lithium process flowsheet and the tin/tungsten recovery circuit delivering metal concentrates to refineries; and
  • The FEED is intended to deliver a binding fixed price lump sum turnkey engineering procurement and construction (EPC) contract with associated process guarantee and product specification guarantees for battery-grade lithium chemicals. The combination of these will greatly assist to underwrite project financing from leading European and global financial institutions lending into this new energy electric vehicle-led industrial revolution, European Metals Holdings says.

The FEED study will commence immediately and SMS group is expected to deliver the EPC contract, as the final component part of the Cinovec DFS, by the end of 2021.

Herbert Weissenbaeck, Senior Vice President for Strategic Project Development at SMS group, said: “Having successfully completed thorough technical due diligence, we believe in the compelling value proposition of Geomet’s Cinovec lithium/tin/tungsten project, which is set to become a cornerstone of the e-mobility driven European battery metals landscape. SMS group is delighted to deploy its second-to-none technology metals and materials production know-how and EPC capabilities into this exciting project.”

EMH Executive Chairman, Keith Coughlan, added: “SMS is the ideal engineering partner for the Cinovec project as it is based in neighbouring Germany with a globally-respected process design capability. The appointment of SMS is the culmination of a negotiation and due diligence process that has lasted over a year.

“EMH, Geomet and ČEZ have all been consistently impressed by SMS group’s capabilities and insights into the development of efficient high recovery plants capable of producing very high quality end-products. Successful delivery of the FEED study will provide a gateway to financing institutions and offtakers of the highest quality. We believe that the intended product and process guarantees will greatly enhance the project finance either directly through commercial lenders or through the recently announced collaborative agreement with EIT InnoEnergy.”

A 2019 prefeasibility study on Cinovec outlined a 1.68 Mt/y operation producing 25,267 t of battery-grade lithium hydroxide over a mine life of 21 years. This came with a capital cost of $482.6 million.

Rafaella considers processing options after positive TOMRA XRT ore sorting tests

Sensor-based ore sorting test work from TOMRA Sorting Solutions has shown the potential for lowering the planned capital expenditure and operating costs associated with developing the Santa Comba tungsten-tin project in Galicia, Spain, project owner Rafaella Resources has reported.

The “exceptional” ore sorting results showed a 50% rejection of un-mineralised rock and an approximate doubling of feed grade, which would significantly lower the planned process capex and opex, and enhance process efficiency through a simpler process flowsheet, the company said. The 50% cut in process tonnage also reduces the project’s environmental impact, with a far lower volume of waste generated, lower energy consumption per unit of metal produced and reduced water consumption.

The “Grade Recovery Curve” showed the potential for over 90% tungsten recovery with an increased yield of up to 55% of feed mass, it added, while testing of the low-grade ores showed viable recovery from over 2 Mt of mineralisation not currently factored into the project’s economics.

The program tested two bulk samples selected from assayed drill core crushed to two size groups: +8 mm to -20mm and +20 mm to -40 mm. Sample No. 40 was circa-1,100 kg of average grade ore at 0.15% WO3, while Sample No. 41 was circa-250 kg of low-grade ore at 0.05% WO3.

TOMRA’s conclusion in its report was that “the results from this test work were positive for both sizes and samples. Significant upgrades of WO3, as well as high recoveries, were achieved in all test runs for sample ‘40’ using X-ray Transmission (XRT), while leaving rather low grades for WO3 in the waste fraction. A calculation has shown that a 90% recovery of tungsten can be possible at a waste removal of more than 50%.

“The low-grade sample ’41’ could be upgraded by a factor of 1.7 to 3. For further calculations, a waste grade between 0.025 and 0.030 is achievable.”

The success of the XRT sorting tests allows several mining and process options, Rafaella says, including:

  • Simplification of the process;
  • Bulk ore zone mining to reduce operational costs and maximise ore recovery;
  • In-pit sorting and conveying;
  • Bulk underground mining and sorting of wider ore zones using larger and longer stopes;
  • Separate sorting of sub-grade mineralisation; and
  • Sorting of satellite deposit ores prior to hauling to the process plant.

TOMRA estimates a throughput of 1 Mt/y of feed ore and circa-500,000 t/y of pre-concentrate would require two XRT units.

Rafaella’s Managing Director, Steven Turner, said the results from the ore sorting test work have exceeded the company’s expectations.

“The clear discrimination between ore-bearing rock and low grade or barren rock has delivered high recoveries and yields allowing for a simpler process plant,” he said. “The benefits of this simplification will be significant once the metallurgical studies are completed. These results are now being fed into the feasibility study that is in the final stages of completion.

“The company looks forward to providing the market with these exciting updates on the fast tracking of its flagship project over the coming weeks.”

Santa Comba is a brownfield project with a 5.1 Mt JORC 2012 compliant near-surface inferred resource at 0.203% WO3 and 0.014% Sn and an underground inferred resource of 234,000 t at 0.95% WO3 and 0.28% Sn.