Tag Archives: narrow vein mining

Sandvik narrows down market for new class of underground drills

Sandvik Mining and Rock Technology has launched a new class of narrow size drills specifically aimed at the requirements of specialist mining companies as well as drill and blast contractors requiring safe, productive, mobile rigs for use in narrow vein and other confined areas.

The new 2711 class of drills are simple and safe to operate, with robust components, and provide an excellent performance to ownership cost ratio, according to the company.

The 2711 class drills have been developed to cater to the needs of certain mining and tunnelling operations.

Sandvik explained: “Selective mining methods and small tunnel developments have proved to be a good way to extract ore economically, and control the dilution when ore is distributed in narrow veins typically less than 2-3 m in width. Sandvik’s narrow size underground drills are thus designed specifically with the requirements of drilling narrow vein drifts and that of small tunnels projects in mind.”

The drills are also equipped with Sandvik’s Fleet Data Monitoring systems, enabling mines and tunnelling contractors to improve fleet performance and management.

The 2711 class is an ideal solution for specialist mines and drilling contractors looking for smarter control of ore dilution and increasing selective process in mining, according to Sandvik. The series consists of three drill types using a common platform covering different applications: namely development drilling DD2711, rock support bolting DS2711 and long hole production drilling DL2711 and DL2721.

The DD2711 (pictured) is a compact and flexible single boom electro-hydraulic jumbo for mining development and construction in small and medium size tunnels with a minimum cross section of 2.7 m x 2.7 m. The versatile boom delivers large coverage and fully automatic parallelism for fast and accurate face drilling, while 20 kW of drilling percussion power is provided through Sandvik’s HXL5 rock drill.

The rig is designed for underground hard-rock applications that require high capacity and reliability in development blast holes ranging from 3.7 m to 4.3 m in length.

The DS2711, meanwhile, is a one-man operated electro-hydraulic, fully mechanised bolter for rock reinforcement in underground hard-rock mines. The operator works from supported ground while protected under a FOPS-certified canopy structure. “Mechanisation of the bolting process ensures efficient, constant and durable rock bolts integrity,” Sandvik said.

The DS2711 provides “excellent” bolting performance to cost ratio for small and medium size tunnels with minimum cross section of 2.7 m (width) x 3 m (height), according to Sandvik.

“Designed with proven and reliable components, the DS2711 provides high reach, and is able to install all types of mechanised rock bolts ranging in length from 1.5 m to 2.4 m. It is in effect a small premium bolter, compact, mobile and designed for global needs.

The next addition to the range will happen in 2020 with Sandvik DL2711 & DL2721 long hole drills.

Sandvik concluded: “The new 2711 drill family provides, in one modular platform, accurate drilling with high performance, large coverage and drill capacity, with enhanced product safety and excellent mobility, tramming smoothly into small mining drifts and tunnels.

“The selected reliable components and simple electro-hydraulic systems are designed to be used in conjunction with Sandvik’s comprehensive range of underground drills, loaders and trucks, all being supported worldwide by the Sandvik network.”

Nippon thermal fragmentation tech proves its worth at AngloGold narrow vein mine

Nippon Dragon Resources has revealed more details about testing of its exclusive and patented thermal fragmentation technology in South Africa following a recent presentation from AngloGold Ashanti.

The company’s South Africa distributor, MaXem, who attended the open-day presentation organised by the Mandela Mining Precinct, provided the details, Nippon said.

Nippon’s thermal fragmentation process for narrow vein mining involves drilling a series of 6 in (15 cm) pilot holes into the vein with a conventional drill. Thermal fragmentation (thermal head, compressed air and water) is then inserted and spalls the rock, quickly increasing the diameter of the hole to 30-110 cm. After this, ore can be extracted in 0-13 mm fragments. The leftover rock between fragmented holes is then broken to recover the remaining ore.

This precision allows for the extraction of high-grade precious and base metal veins without dilution, according to Nippon.

AngloGold Ashanti, which is a MaXem client, said over 200 holes were drilled and fragmented using the thermal fragmentation technology at one of its underground operations in South Africa. Of these holes, several exceeded 30 m in length.

One of the objectives of the test work was to drill, fragment, clean and backfill a hole within a 25-hour period; an objective the company achieved, Nippon said, adding that over the 200 holes completed, productivity ranged from between 3-6 t/h.

Two other projects are currently under review by the Non-Explosive Rock Breaking Programme within the Mandela Mining Precinct, MaXem and other partners, according to Nippon. One of these is the spallability classification of different rock types and the other is the employability of the thermal fragmentation technology within the platinum sector.

The Mandela Mining Precinct is established as a public and private partnership between the South African Government, the mining companies, manufacturers of mining equipment, research organisations and academia to foster collaboration and innovation. It “assists the mining industry in bringing change to processes, technologies, skillsets and social and environmental impacts associated with current mining through the modernisation of mines via mechanisation and automation”, Nippon says.

Anaconda Mining ready to disrupt narrow vein mining sector

Anaconda Mining’s goal of finding a technology to economically extract gold from the Romeo & Juliet deposit at its Point Rousse operation in the Baie Verte region of Newfoundland, Canada, has gained a global audience since it was named a finalist at the Goldcorp-backed #DisruptMining event earlier this year.

The company’s technology-focused subsidiary thinks a combination of drilling and imaging techniques already proven in the oil & gas industry will provide the technical and economical means to mine the steeply dipping narrow vein mineralisation at the deposit.

The process, Sustainable Mining by Drilling (SMD) is divided into two campaigns: drilling the pilot holes and accurately mapping the vein, then enlarging the pilot holes to predetermined sizes to recover the ore. Using an inclined mast drilling rig, an inclined pilot hole is drilled along the centre line of the vein (equidistant between the hangingwall/footwall) with a directional drilling system.

Steering the pilot holes live with a survey tool will determine the current orientation and refine the 3D model of the vein used to plan the pilot hole enlargement, Anaconda says, adding that once the pilot has been drilled, a large hole-opener can be used to open up the hole’s trajectory up to 2 m in a single pass.

While Anaconda is focused on using SMD to mine its own problem deposit, as with many innovations in the mining sector, the technology looks like having global applications, and not just within mining.

Ahead of IM’s annual focus on narrow vein and low profile mining – to be published in the July issue – editor, Dan Gleeson, spoke with Dustin Angelo, President and Director of Anaconda Mining, to find out, among other things, how SMD can: reduce the cost to extract ore by 50% over conventional underground narrow vein mining techniques; increase operator safety by locating personnel above ground; access areas not open to conventional mining; reduce the environmental footprint of an operation; and bypass the crushing and grinding circuits by moving the +/-2 mm drill cuttings in a slurry direct to the mill.

IM: Anaconda says the technology that has gone into SMD is proven in other industries: what are these industries?

DA: We’re basically adapting technologies that have been used in the oil & gas industry for quite some time; directional drilling and sub-surface imaging. Even though we are dealing with new technology and a new process, what we’re working with, fundamentally, has been used elsewhere in other industries. We’re not reinventing the entire wheel; we’re just adding to that wheel.

We have got patent-pending inventions within SMD related to two key areas – the drilling and imaging. From the drilling standpoint, one of the key considerations we need to address is being in ore right from surface. We have developed some inventions that are added to a pile top drill rig to be able to get the required torque and thrust immediately from surface. We have also created a component that enables a drill string to be more flexible than normal to allow for course change during the hole opening phase.

In terms of sub-surface imaging, we are looking at ground penetrating radar (GPR), which is right off the shelf, but we’re adding some surveying tools to it in order to be able to improve visualisation and more clearly orient ourselves when steering.

IM: How flexible is that drill string? Are there limitations in terms of angle and depth?

DA: We’re looking at a 1 degree change every three metres in the work we are planning to carry out at Romeo & Juliet. And, right now, the depth is down to about 300 m. What we’re using is RC airlift assist to bring the cuttings back up, so the technologies that are out there allow us to go to that depth. Yet, one of the drill manufacturers we are talking to is experimenting with getting down to 400 m; this is all dependent on the angle of the hole. In our field test, we intend to initially go down to 50-100 m depending on how much drill string we want to acquire.

IM: Speaking of your field test, what application are you looking to test SMD on?

DA: The deposit we are looking at trialling this on – called Romeo & Juliet – is, so far, measuring around 3.5-4 g/t Au, which is roughly three times the grade we have been mining in the area at Point Rousse. This is significant for us in terms of grade.

What we’re trying to do with the trial is test the imaging technology and the ability to steer; the ability to put the pilot hole down the hole, roughly half way between the hanging wall and footwall of the vein, and then bring the pile-top drill rig in to enlarge that pilot hole. It is a proof of concept from that point of view.

We’re going to try and select areas of the deposit to test where the dip angle and width of the vein is representative of where we want to be mining. The drill rig we are proposing to use right now for the trial is smaller in diameter to what we propose you can ultimately use SMD for. It’s a 1-1.3 m diameter drill rig, so we are looking for a portion of the vein at Romeo & Juliet with that thickness for the trial.

IM: Aside from the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science at Memorial University of Newfoundland, are there any other partners you are working with on SMD?

DA: Because of the notoriety we got from being a finalist of #DisruptMining, it has accelerated development of this technology in the sense we have had a lot of interest from gold producers and drill manufacturers – we are talking to them about potential partnerships, strategic investments and field trials.

The common theme among all these conversations is that SMD makes a lot of sense and many companies could see it being applied at their sites.

While we haven’t signed any specific agreements with drill manufacturers, if this is a concept that takes off and there is lots of demand for it, it would make sense for them to be involved. They want to sell drills and we’re not going to manufacture drills, so it is an opportunity for them to have another product to sell. We want to licence our technology and the SMD process while providing services to optimise the system by end users.

IM: Have you been surprised by the industry response to SMD since it has been more widely publicised?

DA: It’s not surprising to us that there is global interest, as there are narrow vein deposits all over the world – we’ve had interest from Russia, South America, South Korea, Ghana, the US, Australia, all over the place. We’ve been focused on gold deposits, but it is certainly applicable in other deposits where there is narrow vein mineralisation, too.

One of the interesting things to come out of this exercise, which we didn’t necessarily foresee, is that the imaging technology could also be applicable in mineral exploration, especially with the imaging and GPR capabilities.

IM: Because the technology is new and unproven within a mining context, how do you see companies modelling resources based on SMD to a 43-101-compliant status?

DA: We’re not sure, from a regulatory perspective, how this technology could impact that. I would imagine, at this point, we would need a longer track record to prove its ability to transform uneconomic mineral resources into economic reserves. Once you start to build a history, companies can use that as a legitimate way to delineate reserves that they previously had to leave behind.

That’s the whole purpose of SMD; there are mineral resources in the ground, whether it is whole deposits or certain zones of existing mines that cannot be mined by conventional methods. You can use this methodology in certain cases to extract the ore. If you can do that economically, by definition, it should be a reserve.

Up to this point, most exploration has been about trying to find orebodies to match conventional mining methods; your risk factor here is finding the ore. With SMD, we’re flipping it round; you know where the ore is because you’ve already outlined a mineral resource. It just so happens that it is not economic using conventional mining methods. So, you just need to find a technology that can mine it, which we think we have for narrow vein deposits and zones.

From an exploration standpoint, you can use that image and extrapolate out better than with a conventional drill hole, so, in theory, you can carry out less drilling. Depending on the bandwidth and the GPR, you can look out five metres from where you are currently drilling. This allows you to get a better representation of the orebody and model it more accurately with less drilling.

IM: What is the timeline on SMD demonstrations? And, will the first trial take place at Romeo & Juliet?

DA: It would be Romeo & Juliet first, and we’re targeting late-August/September with the trial lasting around two months.

DUX working on compact scoop loader and electric-powered equipment

Underground mining equipment supplier, DUX Machinery, says it is in the process of manufacturing a very compact DUX Model DSL-300 scoop loader.

The compact model has the operator side seated in an “ergonomically correct” compartment, while the engine side end is identical to the DUX DT-5N dump truck (pictured), which the company designed, built and tested in 2016/2017, with one machine now operating in a narrow-vein copper mine in the US.

The company has become renowned for developing machines for the underground narrow-vein market and said of the mining technique: “The advantage of the narrow-vein mining methods is to improve the ore grade delivered to the mill, significantly reduce waste development and reduce equipment, mining, ventilation and fuel costs.”

DUX’s DSL-300 comes with a 3-t tramming capacity, a machine width of 1.4 m, a bucket width of 1.45 m and a standard SAE heaped bucket capacity of 1.22 m³. It also has an ejector bucket option available.

While this unit is available with a diesel engine for high altitude and EPA Tier 4 Final, EU Stage IV regulated engine, DUX said it is in the process of designing a battery-/electric-powered version of the DSL-300 with on-board battery charging. These will improve noise levels, and reduce ventilation and maintenance costs, it said.

The electric-powered version will be introduced in 2020, according to DUX.

Asante Gold weighs up use of Anaconda Mining SMD narrow vein technology

Asante Gold says it is reviewing a new mining technique, Sustainable Mining by Drilling (SMD), for use at its Kubi gold project in Ghana.

SMD is a two-stage drilling method that enables direct mining of narrow vein deposits. The technology is being developed and commercialised by Anaconda Mining, in collaboration with Memorial University of Newfoundland, and uses technology proven in other industries, Asante said.

Anaconda’s SMD technology placed second in the recent Goldcorp #DisruptMining challenge held on the sidelines of the annual Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada event in Toronto on March 3, 2019.

“This concept is a complete surface mining option with a drilling rig as a main surface piece of equipment used in conjunction with several field-proven downhole technologies,” Anaconda said.

The mining process is divided into two campaigns: drilling the pilot holes and accurately mapping the vein, then enlarging the pilot holes to predetermined sizes to recover the ore.

Using an inclined mast drilling rig, an inclined pilot hole is to be drilled along the centre line of the vein (equidistant between the hangingwall and footwall) with directional drilling system.

Steering the pilot holes live with a survey tool will determine the current orientation and refine the 3D model of the vein used to plan the pilot hole enlargement.

“Once the pilot hole has been drilled, progressively larger hole-openers can be used to drill along the pilot hole’s trajectory up to 2 m,” Anaconda said.

Anaconda said the SMD technology is a “disruptor” in that it reduces the cost to extract ore by 50% over conventional underground narrow mining techniques; it places the operator in a safe location on the surface; can access areas not open to conventional mining; reduces the environmental footprint; and by passes the crushing and grinding circuits by moving the +/-2 mm drill cuttings in a slurry direct to the mill.

Douglas MacQuarrie, President and CEO of Asante Gold, said: “The new SMD mining technique slashes the mining costs, development time and capital required to take near-surface gold deposits to production.

“Our Kubi Main Zone gold resource is located in one of the best and safest gold mining destinations in the world, is road and power accessible, has an average width of 2 m, is near vertical, and appears to be well suited for the application of this technique. Previous metallurgical tests on Kubi mineralisation gave 35% to 40% recovery of the contained gold by gravity concentration from a coarse grind, which suggest a similar recovery might be expected directly from the SMD drill cuttings, giving a potential source of early cash flow. We are looking forward to the development and commercialisation of the SMD technology and its potential application at Kubi.”

Goldcorp narrows down finalists for #DisruptMining PDAC showdown

Goldcorp has announced the three finalists selected to pitch to a panel of judges at the #DisruptMining 2019 live finale taking place around the PDAC event in Toronto, next month.

The trio includes companies looking at a new drilling approach that can unlock the value in narrow vein deposits; a unique way of training artificial intelligence (AI) to autonomously operate a mineral processing facility; and an Internet of Things application that increases the intelligence of belt conveyors used to transport material at mine sites, according to Goldcorp.

Todd White, Goldcorp Chief Operating Officer and Executive Vice President of Operations, said: “#DisruptMining continues to represent the best of innovation in the mining industry. These finalists demonstrate break-through thinking and help build digital momentum in mining. The industry needs to help accelerate the development of these kinds of technologies.”

After a technical review by a group from the University of British Columbia, shortlisted submissions were reviewed by senior Goldcorp representatives to determine semi-finalists and finalists for #DisruptMining, Goldcorp said. The three finalists pitching their disruptive technology to the panel of judges are:

  • Anaconda Mining, a TSX-listed gold mining company operating in Atlantic Canada, has developed an innovative, two-stage drilling method that enables economic mining of narrow-vein deposits, according to Goldcorp. The technology, known as Sustainable Mining by Drilling (SMD), was developed in collaboration with Memorial University of Newfoundland. Goldcorp said: “SMD has the potential to unlock value in existing deposits that were previously thought to be uneconomic to mine using traditional underground or surface mining methods. The developers also expect this technology could extend the life of current operations by allowing safe excavation to occur beyond the limits of current designs”;
  • ANDRITZ, a leading supplier of machines and automation solutions worldwide, has developed a unique and continuous way of training artificial intelligence to operate a mineral processing facility using ANDRITZ’s digital twin, Goldcorp said. “The AI is trained to respond to a variety of situations, making it capable of adapting to changing inputs and improving upset recovery time,” Goldcorp said. The trained AI’s ability to quickly process information and recommend data-driven solutions will allow for the improvement of the operation, such as start-up and shutdown, and assist operators to achieve plant-wide optimisation, and;
  • Voith Turbo, a division of Voith GmbH & Co KGaA, whose IoT application BeltGenius (pictured) creates a digital twin of belt conveyors which provides real-time insight into the behaviour of the operation. “Resulting from a constant learning system, this information is used to identify potential risks and inefficiencies, allowing for greater uptime, more efficient energy use, predictive maintenance and optimisation of weight and speed,” Goldcorp said. With BeltGenius, mine sites can operate their belt conveyors with greater control and consistency, increasing their savings on repairs and material transportation costs while reducing the environmental impact of traditional haul trucks.

Deciding the fate of the three finalists will be Ian Telfer, Chair of Goldcorp; Katie Valentine, Partner at KPMG Australia and Global Head of Mining Consulting; Sue Paish, CEO of Canada’s Digital Technology Supercluster; Jacob Yeung, University of British Columbia student and #DisruptMining UBC Captain; and returning #DisruptMining judge Wal van Lierop, President & CEO, Chrysalix Venture Capital.

Co-hosted by KPMG, the #DisruptMining live finale will take place on Sunday, March 3, 2019 at the Rebel Entertainment Complex in Toronto during the PDAC convention. Each finalist will present a short pitch video followed by a Q&A with the judges, in front of a live audience of nearly 600 people, demonstrating how their concept or technology has the potential to #DisruptMining.

In addition to finalists, six semi-finalists will showcase their technologies at the #DisruptMining Innovation Expo. The Expo will take place on Sunday March 3, 2019, at the Rebel Entertainment Complex in Toronto.