Tag Archives: Tin

Tungsten West set to bring Hemerdon tungsten-tin mine back into production

Tungsten West, the mining company focused on recommencing production at the Hemerdon tungsten and tin mine in Devon, England, has announced its intention to proceed with an initial public offering on London’s AIM market.

The company has conditionally raised £39 million ($53 million) before expenses, with plans to debut on the bourse on October 21 with a market capitalisation of approximately £106.2 million.

The net proceeds of the offer, together with the $49 million project financing from a fund managed by Orion Resource Partners, will be used to, among other things, execute the planned capital expenditure and corporate commitments of £44.6 million for improvement works at the Hemerdon Mine, bringing it back into commercial production.

Hemerdon is, Tungsten West says, the third largest tungsten resource globally, as well as being a previously producing mine that was operational from 2015-2018. Tungsten West purchased the Hemerdon Mine in 2019, and has since completed a bankable feasibility study that demonstrated an extensive reserve of approximately 63.3 Mt at 0.18% W and 0.03% Sn, as well as 37.4 Mt of saleable aggregate material. The company estimates that the life of mine is currently 18.5 years with the opportunity to extend this through future investment.

The mine already has the majority of its infrastructure in place, with previous owner Wolf Minerals Ltd having invested over £170 million into the development of the mine and its processing facilities, which include an open-pit mine, mineral processing facility and mine waste facility, the company says. With a substantial amount of existing infrastructure, the development costs associated with re-starting the mine are estimated to be £44.6 million. This existing infrastructure also means that the rebuild is only expected to take 12 months, with parts of the restart project already underway.

Having acquired the mine out of a receivership process, Tungsten West completed a significant amount of work to enable it to understand and address the issues historically experienced by Wolf Minerals, including a 6,113 m geological exploration drilling program and several technical studies. The company has identified the past issues experienced by Wolf Minerals that required rectifying.

“One of the main issues was a poor mineral process route design, with several items of equipment, particularly in the front end of the plant, causing plant downtime and hindering the recovery of the tungsten and tin minerals,” Tungsten West says. “Tungsten West has therefore designated a material proportion of its rebuild costs to modifying and updating the front-end of the processing plant. This will include replacing the existing crushing circuit with new duty and standby primary jaw crushers and secondary cone crushers.”

In addition, the introduction of X-ray Transmission ore sorting, which the company previously carried out tests on with TOMRA Mining in Germany, substantially reduces processing costs by rejecting around 70% of the ore fed to the sorters, it says.

Further upgrades to the plant commenced by the previous operator will be completed, including the dense media separation feed stockpile where 24 hours of surge capacity will be installed, decoupling the front-end of the plant from the concentrator circuit.

“Through these actions, the company expects plant operating time to improve from circa-53% under previous operatorship to the industry standard of circa-81% under Tungsten West,” Tungsten West says.

Tungsten West has identified further opportunities for by-product cash flow through the production and sale of aggregates. A new aggregate plant will be fed with ore sorter rejects and with the waste streams from the processing plant. The business plan is to sell to local aggregate consumers, such as GRS, providing them with a stable, long-term and sustainable source of these materials.

The company says it has implemented a number of initiatives to ensure a minimal impact on the surrounding environment and local community. These include optimising the plants low frequency noise to ensure minimal environmental impact and a fully cash funded £13.2 million restoration bond.

Max Denning, CEO of Tungsten West, says: “With the proposed £39 million raise announced today, and the £36 million funding package from Orion, we will be fully funded for the development of Hemerdon back into production. We look forward to welcoming new investors into this compelling business and working with all our stakeholders to ensure that the newly reinvigorated Hemerdon mine is a beacon of mining excellence in the UK.”

Alphamin bolsters gravity separation options with second Gekko IPJ

Alphamin Resources has purchased a second IPJ2400 for tin recovery at the Bisie tin project in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gekko Systems says.

The purchase of a second Gekko InLine Pressure Jig (IPJ) unit follows good performance from the first IPJ installed at this site in 2018 (pictured).

In addition, the Ririwai tin project has purchased an IPJ1500 in Nigeria.

The IPJ is a continuous gravity separation device that rapidly and efficiently pre-concentrates high-value and high-density mineral particles such as tin, tantalum, sulphides and free gold, Gekko says.

With installations worldwide, the unit has multiple applications including assisting in gangue rejection and combining with flotation to recover coarse minerals at the plus-100 micron range. The IPJ has significant benefits such as low water consumption, low footprint, ease of operation and 30 years of operational history.

SMS group assigned to FEED work at Cinovec lithium project

European Metals Holdings (EMH) has appointed SMS group Process Technologies as the lead engineer for minerals processing and lithium battery-grade chemicals production at the Cinovec project in the Czech Republic.

Cinovec, a joint venture between European Metals (49%) and ČEZ Group (51%, through its subsidiary Severočeské doly), is operated by Geomet. The project has recently received investment of around €29 million ($34 million) of funding from EIT InnoEnergy, the principal facilitator and organiser of the European Battery Alliance, for the project, seeing it through to a construction decision.

Under the agreement, SMS group, a leader in plant construction and mechanical engineering for the technology metals and materials sector, will provide a complete front-end engineering design (FEED) study as the major component of the ongoing definitive feasibility study (DFS) work at Cinovec.

Under the agreement, SMS will provide the following to the Cinovec project:

  • Full process integration from the point of delivery of ore to the underground crusher through to the delivery of finished battery-grade lithium chemicals for battery and cathode manufacturers;
  • The FEED will include all of the process steps – comminution, beneficiation, roasting, leaching and purification;
  • The FEED will encompass both the lithium process flowsheet and the tin/tungsten recovery circuit delivering metal concentrates to refineries; and
  • The FEED is intended to deliver a binding fixed price lump sum turnkey engineering procurement and construction (EPC) contract with associated process guarantee and product specification guarantees for battery-grade lithium chemicals. The combination of these will greatly assist to underwrite project financing from leading European and global financial institutions lending into this new energy electric vehicle-led industrial revolution, European Metals Holdings says.

The FEED study will commence immediately and SMS group is expected to deliver the EPC contract, as the final component part of the Cinovec DFS, by the end of 2021.

Herbert Weissenbaeck, Senior Vice President for Strategic Project Development at SMS group, said: “Having successfully completed thorough technical due diligence, we believe in the compelling value proposition of Geomet’s Cinovec lithium/tin/tungsten project, which is set to become a cornerstone of the e-mobility driven European battery metals landscape. SMS group is delighted to deploy its second-to-none technology metals and materials production know-how and EPC capabilities into this exciting project.”

EMH Executive Chairman, Keith Coughlan, added: “SMS is the ideal engineering partner for the Cinovec project as it is based in neighbouring Germany with a globally-respected process design capability. The appointment of SMS is the culmination of a negotiation and due diligence process that has lasted over a year.

“EMH, Geomet and ČEZ have all been consistently impressed by SMS group’s capabilities and insights into the development of efficient high recovery plants capable of producing very high quality end-products. Successful delivery of the FEED study will provide a gateway to financing institutions and offtakers of the highest quality. We believe that the intended product and process guarantees will greatly enhance the project finance either directly through commercial lenders or through the recently announced collaborative agreement with EIT InnoEnergy.”

A 2019 prefeasibility study on Cinovec outlined a 1.68 Mt/y operation producing 25,267 t of battery-grade lithium hydroxide over a mine life of 21 years. This came with a capital cost of $482.6 million.

Rafaella considers processing options after positive TOMRA XRT ore sorting tests

Sensor-based ore sorting test work from TOMRA Sorting Solutions has shown the potential for lowering the planned capital expenditure and operating costs associated with developing the Santa Comba tungsten-tin project in Galicia, Spain, project owner Rafaella Resources has reported.

The “exceptional” ore sorting results showed a 50% rejection of un-mineralised rock and an approximate doubling of feed grade, which would significantly lower the planned process capex and opex, and enhance process efficiency through a simpler process flowsheet, the company said. The 50% cut in process tonnage also reduces the project’s environmental impact, with a far lower volume of waste generated, lower energy consumption per unit of metal produced and reduced water consumption.

The “Grade Recovery Curve” showed the potential for over 90% tungsten recovery with an increased yield of up to 55% of feed mass, it added, while testing of the low-grade ores showed viable recovery from over 2 Mt of mineralisation not currently factored into the project’s economics.

The program tested two bulk samples selected from assayed drill core crushed to two size groups: +8 mm to -20mm and +20 mm to -40 mm. Sample No. 40 was circa-1,100 kg of average grade ore at 0.15% WO3, while Sample No. 41 was circa-250 kg of low-grade ore at 0.05% WO3.

TOMRA’s conclusion in its report was that “the results from this test work were positive for both sizes and samples. Significant upgrades of WO3, as well as high recoveries, were achieved in all test runs for sample ‘40’ using X-ray Transmission (XRT), while leaving rather low grades for WO3 in the waste fraction. A calculation has shown that a 90% recovery of tungsten can be possible at a waste removal of more than 50%.

“The low-grade sample ’41’ could be upgraded by a factor of 1.7 to 3. For further calculations, a waste grade between 0.025 and 0.030 is achievable.”

The success of the XRT sorting tests allows several mining and process options, Rafaella says, including:

  • Simplification of the process;
  • Bulk ore zone mining to reduce operational costs and maximise ore recovery;
  • In-pit sorting and conveying;
  • Bulk underground mining and sorting of wider ore zones using larger and longer stopes;
  • Separate sorting of sub-grade mineralisation; and
  • Sorting of satellite deposit ores prior to hauling to the process plant.

TOMRA estimates a throughput of 1 Mt/y of feed ore and circa-500,000 t/y of pre-concentrate would require two XRT units.

Rafaella’s Managing Director, Steven Turner, said the results from the ore sorting test work have exceeded the company’s expectations.

“The clear discrimination between ore-bearing rock and low grade or barren rock has delivered high recoveries and yields allowing for a simpler process plant,” he said. “The benefits of this simplification will be significant once the metallurgical studies are completed. These results are now being fed into the feasibility study that is in the final stages of completion.

“The company looks forward to providing the market with these exciting updates on the fast tracking of its flagship project over the coming weeks.”

Santa Comba is a brownfield project with a 5.1 Mt JORC 2012 compliant near-surface inferred resource at 0.203% WO3 and 0.014% Sn and an underground inferred resource of 234,000 t at 0.95% WO3 and 0.28% Sn.

Minespider wins EIT Raw Materials funding for supply chain transparency app

Minespider, a blockchain protocol for responsible mineral tracking, has been awarded a grant of over €180,000 ($213,732) from the EIT Raw Materials Booster Programme.

The program aims to support start-ups and SMEs in creating innovative products and services that will positively impact the raw materials sector, according to Minespider.

The grant will help Minespider develop OreSource, a due diligence product that helps mines and smelters capture key information that importers in the European Union need to comply with EU Conflict Mineral Regulation. The regulation, which comes into force in January 2021, requires EU importers of 3TG (tin, tungsten, tantalum and gold) to perform due diligence to determine whether their material comes from a conflict affected or high-risk area.

Minespider Founder and CEO, Nathan Williams, said: “European importers need to have better access to data to operate in this new regulatory environment. They require certain data to be included with the materials they purchase.”

The OreSource product extends the capabilities of Minespider’s open, public blockchain protocol, which allows companies to track their raw material shipments, demonstrating where the materials come from and the conditions under which they were produced, the company says. This blockchain creates digital certificates that separate data into three different layers, depending on whether the data should be publicly visible, transparent between members of the same supply chain, or private between a company and their customer.

“This allows their clients, including Volkswagen and Google, to share sensitive transparency information with their customers and other supply chain participants securely,” Minespider says.

The OreSource app allows mines and smelters to provide information to distinguish their products from the rest of the market. Mines and smelters who use the app upload key data such as bills of lading, invoices, company policies, and third-party certifications, which are assembled into a digital certificate and linked along the supply chain.

By affixing a QR code to a mineral shipment, or on an invoice, the recipients of the materials have all the data they need to ensure their compliance with the EU regulation, secured on Minespider’s public blockchain protocol, the company claims.

Williams continued: “Responsible producers are often at a disadvantage in the global market. OreSource is a solid first step toward making responsibly sourced material the norm instead of the exception.”

Companies importing material into Europe benefit from this information, as they have all they need to conduct due diligence. “This means they can view transport routes, analyse production site responsibility, and demonstrate a chain of custody for their raw materials,” Minespider says.

OreSource will also offer analytical tools that allow material importers to identify potential conflict areas and other red flags, the company says, enabling them to ask further questions when needed and ensure all of their imports have been sourced responsibly.

Williams concluded: “The EU and other government agencies are spearheading a new global era of sustainable sourcing. OreSource will support these efforts by ensuring that key data from mineral producers is captured in a transparent manner, and communicated along the supply chain. We are moving away from a world of anonymous commodities, to one of trusted products.”

Minespider looks to scale blockchain platform following fundraising

Minespider says it has raised a total of €2.8 million ($3.05 million) to continue developing its open blockchain protocol for supply chain tracking.

The money came from combined sources, including the EU Commission’s H2020’s SME Instrument Phase 2 program.

Minespider Founder and CEO, Nathan Williams, called the successful fundraising “an immense step forward” for the company and its “vision of a future where supply chains are transparent and sustainable”.

Minespider is an open blockchain protocol founded in 2018. As a team of 10, Minespider is based in Berlin, Germany, with operations in both Switzerland and Brazil. Its platform allows companies to create digital passports for their raw materials that keep track of where the materials come from and the conditions under which they were produced. The passports contain data that allows companies to verify that the materials they receive were produced in environmentally and socially sustainable ways, according to Minespider.

“Minespider passports separate data into three different layers, depending on whether the data should be publicly visible, visible to members of the same supply chain, or private between a company and their customer,” the company explained. “This allows companies to share sensitive transparency information with their customers and others further down the supply chain securely.”

Minespider makes this possible without a single trusted company running the system, using an advanced encryption system. This means that companies using Minespider retain total control over their own data.

Since its founding, Minespider has launched several traceability projects with industry players.

In 2018, Minespider partnered with Google to create a multi-stakeholder end-to-end mineral traceability consortium for the tin supply chain. The project formally commenced in 2019, with the addition of Cisco, SGS, Volkswagen, and Peru mining company Minsur (pictured at the San Rafael tin mine here), and has successfully tracked tin end-to-end and is now planning to incorporate new members.

In spring 2019, Minespider announced a joint project with Volkswagen to track its lead battery supply chain. This ongoing circular economy project involves two-thirds of the company’s global lead supply, according to the company. “Volkswagen intends this as a first step to employ blockchain technology for additional raw materials and supply chains,” the company said.

Williams added: “It has been an amazing experience to bring together so many industry leaders to work together on traceability. Now, with the backing of the European Commission and our investors we can scale the platform, bringing on many more participants who believe in the vision of transparent and responsible products.”

Part of funding came from the Horizon 2020 programme, where the European Commission selects potentially disruptive businesses to invest in and support as part of the SME Instrument. Minespider says it was chosen as a highly innovative SME and awarded ‘Very Good to Excellent (4.5 – 5)’ for all three key assessment criteria.

Williams said: “This funding shows how ready the EU Commission is to invest in these emerging and future technologies.”

TOMRA XRT leaves its mark on Minsur San Rafael tin mine

TOMRA Sorting Mining says Peru’s Minsur SA has felt the benefit of its X-ray Transmission (XRT) sensor-based ore sorting technology, with its San Rafael tin mine having seen an increase in reserves, plant capacity, overall recoveries and mine life since it was introduced.

Part of the Breca Group of companies, Minsur owns and operates the largest underground tin mining operation in the world, San Rafael. Located in the Eastern Mountain chain of the Andes in Peru at an altitude of 4,500-5,200 m above sea level, the mine contributed about 6% of the total world production of tin in 2015, with about 1 Mt of ore at an average grade of 2.13% mined and processed, resulting in 20,000 t of tin concentrate.

That same year, Minsur initiated a number of activities to ensure the future value of its asset, addressing challenges that included declining head grades and rising operating costs, according to TOMRA.

One of these activities involved an ore sorting project.

Started in 2015, in collaboration with TOMRA Sorting Mining, the project’s objective was to reject low-grade material in coarse particle size.

“By separating sub-economic material before entering the more cost-intensive wet processing, the project would address the bottleneck at the wet section and improve productivity by increasing the feed grade,” TOMRA explained. An added benefit expected from the project would be the longer life of the mine.

Three main factors indicated that sensor-based particle sorting for waste rejection would be effective at San Rafael:

  • The high absorption of transmitting X-rays of tin contained in cassiterite;
  • The structures of cassiterite, which are large enough to be detected by XRT technology; and
  • The significant degree of liberation of sub-economic waste on the particle level that may be subject to sensor-based particle sorting.

In order to assess the feasibility of the project, TOMRA conducted metallurgical tests on geological samples from San Rafael, followed by performance test work. The tests showed the deposit to be amenable to XRT ore sorting due to the presence of 70-80% of uneconomic particles that can be rejected over a wide size range, from 6 to 70 mm, TOMRA said.

The project was approved and, in view of the significant economic potential, was fast tracked and completed in just 14 months. TOMRA and its partner in Peru, which supplied and installed the XRT sorting system, worked closely with Minsur throughout the six-month ramp-up period.

The ore sorting project with TOMRA’s XRT system has delivered significant financial benefits from the beginning, with Minsur realising payback on its capital expenditure in just four months, according to TOMRA. In 2017, the ore sorting project contributed around 36% of Minsur’s total production with about 6,000 t of tin concentrate, the company said.

The project has reduced capital and operating costs at San Rafael in a number of ways:

  • Added value – TOMRA’s XRT sensor-based ore sorting is converting uneconomic waste material into economic ore, as material below the cutoff for the main plant can be treated with lower operating costs and converted into reserves;
  • Increased plant capacity – The main plant capacity has gone from 2,950 t/d before implementation to 3,200 t/d today, as a result of the crushing operation at the XRT sorting plant;
  • Significant improvement in the overall recovery in the main plant – from 90.5% to 92.5%. This is due to sensor-based ore sorting rejecting particles with very fine mineralised cassiterite that is too small for detection by the XRT system, resulting in higher grade and size of mineralisation;
  • Extended life-of-mine – today, about 24% of the feed to the sensor-based ore sorting plant come from low grade ore from underground, which in the past would have been below the cutoff. This increase in reserves significantly extends the life of mine;
  • Elimination of liabilities through the treatment and proper disposal of 100% of the stockpile; and
  • Decreased tailings disposal due to the sensor-based ore sorting system reducing the amount of waste by increasing the grade in the feed to the plant.

TOMRA concluded on the San Rafael case study: “The success of the project has demonstrated the high potential of TOMRA’s XRT technology, and as a result, the company plans to include XRT sensor-based ore sorting as a possible process route in all future projects.”

WEG Automation Africa overcomes logistical challenges at DRC tin mine

WEG Automation Africa has come to the rescue of a tin mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo, providing a containerised substation and control room solution that circumvented the challenging logistics associated with accessing the operation.

The company, formerly Shaw Controls, put the contract win down to an innovative and fit-for-purpose design.

Tyrone Willemse, Business Development Consultant – Projects and Contracts at WEG Automation Africa, said the substations are each housed in a 6-m-high cube container, with a total of 14 units supplied, comprising MV rooms and LV rooms.

Willemse says: “The unit’s dimensions and robustness had to allow for a long journey, including along a very difficult 200 km road to reach the mine site.”

He added: “Every part of the process plant has its own designated MCC (motor control centre) that provides electrical power and control for areas including the primary crushing circuit, the plant feed, regrind mill, tailings thickener, and the product dewatering and handling circuits.”

In addition to meeting safety compliance regulations, the design includes three-way locking systems, LED lighting, fire detection systems and a safety interlock to the fire system for air conditioners. Backup power supply is provided to all the exit lighting, according to WEG. To ensure easy cable entry, meanwhile, glanding plates were carefully located not to overlap with the container’s support beams.

“Working in close collaboration with the engineering house, careful planning could be done upfront to ensure that nothing was overlooked,” Willemse said.

“In the design, full consideration was given to the placement of elements like platforms, walkways, doors, viewing windows and air conditioning units. We also took responsibility for the logistics of getting everything to site.”

Willemse highlighted that this turnkey solution demonstrated WEG Automation Africa’s containerised substation design and engineering capability, as well as its full local manufacturing capacity, which he said, lifted the company above other MCC manufacturers or assemblers.

The containerised solution comes with a full data pack, quality control documentation and an operation and maintenance manual in accordance with ISO9001.

“With our expertise, capacity and experience of working in Africa, we were able to reduce the risk and turnaround time by tackling the entire contract in-house,” Willemse said. “The extensive testing and cold commissioning enabled by our modus operandi and facilities also gave the mine peace of mind that the unit would function as required when it arrived on site.”

Aus Tin chooses different tack at Taronga Stage 1 project

There are changes afoot at Aus Tin Mining’s Taronga Stage 1 project, in Australia, after the ASX-listed company appointed a contractor for an initial program of mining, crushing and civil works, and made the decision to acquire its own crushing plant.

The company said it had appointed Townes Contracting, a firm with experience in quarrying and crushing operations, to undertake the initial mining, crushing and civil works associated with Taronga Stage 1. Expected to last three months, this contract should provide for site establishment, initial mining of some 50,000 t of ore and waste, crushing of ore and construction of a water dam, Aus Tin said.

Aus Tin’s decision to acquire its own crushing plant, meanwhile, follows a crushing trial completed with a preferred contractor in May. Aus Tin explained: “The company was unable to secure their services in a timeframe consistent with operational requirements.”

The Taronga tin project is the world’s fifth largest undeveloped tin reserve, based on a JORC resource of 57,200 t of contained tin, plus 26,400 t of contained copper and 4.4 Moz of silver, Aus Tin says.

The company completed a prefeasibility study in 2014 that outlined a project treating 2.5 Mt/y of ore, producing an average 2,800 t/y of contained tin over nine years. Following this, in 2015, the company commenced the approvals process to undertake trial mining and pilot processing of 340,000 t of ore to evaluate several areas of potential upside. This project – Taronga Stage 1 – is now fully permitted.

Peter Williams, CEO of Aus Tin, said: “Now that we are no longer constrained in any way by contractors at Granville, we have decided to take a different approach to the operation and believe this will provide the optimal means to exploit this small, but high grade tin deposit.”

Back in March, Aus Tin Mining commenced owner mining at the Granville East tin mine in Australia, just over a week after liquidators were named to its previously appointed mining contractors, Jemrok Pty Ltd.

Aus Tin said the initial programme of work to be carried out by Townes Contracting will provide “several important outcomes”. Included within this is a provisional metal reconciliation, with the average grade of ore mined compared with the respective mining blocks estimated in the 2014 probable reserve; productivity and cost data to optimise pricing for the remainder of Stage 1, and; material for additional metallurgical test work planned prior to the commencement of Stage 1 pilot plant operations.

The remainder of the Stage 1 project, including the expanded mine and pilot plant operations are expected to commence in late 2019.

In terms of the crusher Aus Tin is due to acquire, the company said it had made an initial payment on a second-hand mobile crushing plant, located in Tasmania, and refurbishment of the unit – expected to take three to four weeks – had commenced.

“The key benefits of owner crushing will be a lower operating cost and ability to crush ore on an ongoing basis rather than the campaign basis required for contractors,” Aus Tin said.

GR Engineering to lead Manono lithium-tin DFS in DRC

GR Engineering Services (GRES) is to act as engineer for the definitive feasibility study on AVZ Minerals’ 60%-owned Manono lithium and tin project in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Australia-listed developer said.

GRES, based in Perth, Western Australia, is an engineering group with significant experience in study management and the engineering design and construction of resource projects in Western Australia and globally, both as EPCM and EPC contractor, AVZ said.

Manono, meanwhile, was recently the subject of a scoping study. This study showed a 5Mt/y project could produce around 1.1 Mt/y of concentrate at a minimum of 5.8% Li2O concentrate.

AVZ said: “The GRES team nominated for this engagement have appropriate experience in Africa, including in the DRC, where GRES recently provided operational support and optimisation studies at the Kipoi copper project (Tiger Resources).

AVZ’s Managing Director, Nigel Ferguson, said: “The appointment of GRES as the DFS engineer is a significant milestone for the Manono project as its work is highly regarded by leading financiers and lending institutions.”

Other DFS work streams are continuing to schedule including the metallurgical test work, AVZ noted. A 1 t sub-sample of the bulk sample has been sent to ALS Minerals in Perth for comminution testwork, with results from this expected soon.

The dewatering program for the Roche Dure pit has commenced. Approval to dewater the Roche Dure and M’Pete open pits was given to AVZ’s DRC management company, Dathcom Mining SAS, in mid-May by the Mines Environmental Protection, a section of the DRC Department of Mines. The approval was contingent on the building of a silt settlement pond and a water treatment facility into the existing dewatering channel, which has since been completed.