Tag Archives: Cadia

Komatsu and Vale’s DynaCut Garson collaboration to be highlighted at MINExpo

Komatsu and Vale are set to reveal more about their underground hard-rock mechanised cutting technology collaboration at the upcoming MINExpo 2021 event next month.

The companies, through the Canada Mining Innovation Council, have been engaged on a project to advance the future of underground hard rock excavation through optimising use of Komatsu’s DynaCut mechanical cutting technology.

The technology was previously tested at the Cadia underground mine in New South Wales, Australia, operated by Newcrest Mining, which IM revealed last year as part of an exclusive interview with Vale’s Luke Mahony, Head of Geology, Mine Engineering, Geotechnical and Technology & Innovation for the Global Base Metals Business; and Andy Charsley, Project Lead and Principal Mining Engineer, Technology & Innovation.

Vale and Komatsu will start trialling DynaCut’s capabilities on Komatsu’s new MC51 machine at Vale’s Garson Mine in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, shortly, working together to increase the pace at which the innovative technology will be available to the larger market.

The machine is set up at Garson and expected to start cutting in the next month, IM understands.

“True innovation requires effective collaboration between the end user and suppliers to ensure the technology meets the needs of the industry,” Dino Otranto, Chief Operating Officer of North Atlantic Operations and Asian Refineries for Vale, said. “This partnership is that first step to really prove and understand the technology, while meeting our high standards for safety.”

Through more than 10 years of research and development, Komatsu says it has determined how to break rock continuously and precisely through a fully-electric system that outputs zero emissions. By automating and controlling processes so the machine can be operated remotely via line of site, Komatsu customers can move their operators further from the cutting face and from harm’s way leveraging DynaCut technology and the MC51 machine, it said.

Rudie Boshoff, Director of Hard Rock Cutting Systems at Komatsu, said: “We’re excited to be trialling this new machine and technology because it offers the potential to really change the way our customers mine. Not only does the DynaCut technology provide a very controllable way of cutting rock – within 50 mm accuracy to plan – the machine itself, the MC51, is designed to advance more sustainable mining methods by reducing the amount of equipment required to get to the orebody.”

Komatsu and Vale will be co-presenting about their partnership to drive innovation on September 13, 2021, on stage at the Komatsu booth in Las Vegas.

Just this week, Hillgrove Resources said it was set to trial the DynaCut technology on an MC51 machine to develop a portal and underground decline at the Kanmantoo mine in South Australia following a A$2 million grant from the South Australia Government.

Matrix aims to replace steel componentry at Newcrest’s Cadia block cave

Matrix Composites & Engineering has secured a contract with Newcrest Mining to develop a “high-tech solution” for its Cadia gold mine in New South Wales, Australia.

Under the scope of the works, Matrix will use its expertise in advanced materials technology to develop a composite replacement for steel componentry within the miner’s block caving operations at Cadia.

The scope of works for product development, with a contract value of up to approximately A$500,000 ($380,701), will commence immediately and is planned for completion in October 2021. If the development work is successful, it is intended Matrix would manufacture the full-scale solution at its facility in Henderson, Western Australia, for supply directly to Newcrest.

The contract aligns with Matrix’s strategy to increase penetration of its advanced materials technologies into operations and brownfields projects, the company said. It follows a recent agreement with Woodside Petroleum to provide technology development services, using the company’s expertise in advanced materials technology, composite materials and advanced manufacturing.

Matrix Chief Executive Officer, Aaron Begley, said the advanced composite solution has applications for other companies in the mining sector and potentially in the oil and gas space.

“We are pleased to be working with Newcrest and look forward to delivering on this project to replace steel with an innovative composite product that will introduce new technology to make the block caving process safer and more efficient,” Begley said.

“While the scope of this contract for product development is modest, it demonstrates further progress in our strategic pivot from targeting greenfields capital expenditure work to locally-based brownfields operating expenditure in the oil and gas and resources sectors.

“We are optimistic that successful delivery of this project has the potential to unlock larger scale contracts with Newcrest and other blue-chip resources companies.”

Eriez HydroFloat technology to help improve recoveries at Newcrest’s Cadia operation

Eriez Flotation is to supply four HydroFloat® Separators to Newcrest Mining for use in Stage 2 of the miner’s Cadia Valley Operations (Cadia) expansion project in New South Wales, Australia.

This announcement follows the successful delivery, commissioning and ramp up of four Eriez CrossFlow Separators and two HydroFloats as part of the Cadia Coarse Particle Flotation demonstration plant in 2018.

Eriez Flotation Global Managing Director, Eric Wasmund, says: “When Stage 2 of the Cadia Expansion Project is complete, 100% of the Concentrator 1 tailings will be re-treated, significantly improving overall plant recovery for a coarser primary grind.”

The Stage 2 Cadia Expansion project primarily comprises the addition of a second coarse ore flotation circuit in Concentrator 1, using Eriez’s HydroFloat technology, and equipment upgrades in Concentrator 2, Newcrest said back in October. These changes are expected to see plant capacity go from 33 Mt/y to 35 Mt/y, while life of mine gold and copper recoveries could increase by 3.5% and 2.7%, respectively. Alongside this, the company was expecting a A$22/oz ($16/oz) drop in its all-in sustaining costs.

Newcrest is the first mining company to commercialise HydroFloat coarse particle flotation in sulphides and the first
in a tail scavenging application.

Wasmund added: “Eriez has been very fortunate to partner with Newcrest on coarse particle flotation. As partners we have learned many lessons together.”

Eriez-Australia Managing Director, James Cooke, noted: “During the commissioning of the demonstration plant, Eriez and Newcrest Mining worked closely together to perfect the technology. The decision was subsequently made to expand the application.”

Newcrest shores up wind energy input at Cadia mine with Tilt Renewables PPA

Newcrest Mining has entered into a 15-year renewable Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with Tilt Renewables Ltd to secure a significant part of the future projected energy requirements of its Cadia copper-gold mine in New South Wales, Australia.

The PPA, together with the forecast decarbonisation of NSW electricity generation, is expected to deliver a circa-20% reduction in Newcrest’s greenhouse gas emissions and is a significant step towards achieving Newcrest’s target of a 30% reduction by 2030, the miner said.

Tilt Renewables is the owner and developer of the Rye Park Wind Farm, located north of Yass and east of Boorowa in New South Wales. From January 2024, when commercial operations are targeted to commence, Newcrest will contract for around 55% of Rye Park’s planned circa-400 MW output, which is equivalent to more than 40% of Cadia’s projected energy demand from 2024.

Rye Park Wind Farm, which comes with a capital expenditure bill of A$700 million ($530 million), will become the largest wind farm directly enabled by a corporate PPA in Australia, according to Newcrest, and the project is now expected to move from the development stage into financing and construction.

The PPA is conditional on Tilt Renewables achieving financial close for the project and is a contract for difference requiring no upfront capital investment by the miner. “The PPA will act as a partial hedge against future electricity price increases and will also provide Newcrest with access to large-scale generation certificates which it intends to surrender to achieve a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions,” the company explained.

Newcrest Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer, Sandeep Biswas, said: “This new contract secures renewable energy for our Cadia operations, reduces carbon emissions and helps us maintain competitive energy costs.

“This is a critical step in our transition to sustainable energy use at our operations. As part of our Climate Change Policy, released last June, we have committed to a significant reduction in emissions intensity, and this agreement is a major step towards delivering on that objective.”

He concluded: “We continue to explore ways to reduce Cadia’s emissions intensity and our long-term aim is to virtually eliminate Cadia’s energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we continue to pursue emissions-intensity reduction initiatives at our other operating sites.”

Vale teams with Komatsu and CMIC on ‘revolutionary’ hard-rock cutting project

Vale, in 2021, is due to embark on a major hard-rock cutting project at its Garson mine, in Sudbury, Canada.

Part of the mechanical cutting demonstration within the CMIC (Canada Mining Innovation Council) Continuous Underground Mining project, it will see the company test out a Komatsu hard-rock cutting machine equipped with Komatsu DynaCut Technology at the mine.

With an aim to access the McConnell orebody, as well as provide a primary case study for CMIC members to learn from, all eyes will be on this Sudbury mine in the June quarter of 2021.

Vale plans to demonstrate the ability to cut rock in excess of 250 MPa; cut at a commercial rate of more than 3.5 m/shift; quantify the cost per metre of operation and start to look at the potential comparison with conventional drill and blast development; assess the health, safety and environmental suitability of the mechanical rock excavation (MRE) process; and gain insight into the potential of an optimised MRE process.

Another Komatsu unit has already been assembled and (by now) is most likely operating at the Cadia underground mine in New South Wales, Australia, operated by Newcrest Mining. Vale will be watching developments here, where a three-month “pre-trial” cutting hard rock will take place.

Vale has laid out a testing plan for its own machine, with the unit set to cut around 400 m for the trial period.

IM had to find out more about this.

Fortunately Vale’s Luke Mahony, Head of Geology, Mine Engineering, Geotechnical and Technology & Innovation for the Global Base Metals Business; and Andy Charsley, Project Lead and Principal Mining Engineer, Technology & Innovation, were happy to talk.

IM: Why do you think industry collaboration is key in the underground hard-rock cutting space, in particular? Why has it been harder to develop and apply this technology in mining compared with other solutions such as automation, electrification and digitalisation?

LM: There are many various OEMs entering the market with hard-rock cutting equipment. All of them approach the problem a little bit differently, so it is difficult for one company to trial all of the options. At the same time, we are trying to leverage these new technologies and processes across the industry for a mechanical cutting type of future. For me, this is essential if we are to get the safety, cost and productivity benefits we need to make some of these new underground mines viable.

Comparing it to automation and electrification shows it is a ‘revolutionary’ concept as opposed to an ‘evolutionary’ one. Automation and electrification are more evolutionary concepts – automating an existing scoop or truck or electrifying it – whereas hard-rock cutting is more revolutionary and transformational in the sector, so industry collaboration is even more important.

IM: Since the project was presented at CMIC’s ReThinkMining Webinar, in June, have you had a lot more partnership interest in the project?

LM: We have seen a few other industry members ask questions and connect regarding this project. Some mining companies, while interested, are a little unsure of how they can get on-board with a project like this. What we have done is to utilise the CMIC consortium to make it the foundation of this collaboration, ensuring it is as easy and efficient as possible to join. Also, we want to cover the key concerns that mining companies have when it comes to collaboration, which CMIC is well aware of and can address.

CMIC is well connected with underground professionals and like-minded companies, and is able to pull in interest and facilitate the collaboration framework.

IM: What has happened to the MRE project timeline since June? Are you still on for receiving the machine in early 2021 to start testing later in the year?

AC: The machine has been assembled and we will mobilise it to Canada in early 2021. All of the underground cutting, in Canada, is scheduled to start in April 2021.

Komatsu have assembled two units – the first unit has come off the assembly line and is about to start trials at Cadia any day now. The second machine has just completed final assembly and will undergo Factory Acceptance Testing in the next few months, while we monitor the initial performance of the first machine. The second machine will come to Canada early next year and, if there are any modifications required, we can carry them out, prior to it going underground.

IM: How has the machine changed from the prototype that was initially deployed at Cadia and shown at MINExpo 2016?

AC: In 2016 and 2018, Komatsu implemented a proof of concept and, after that proof of concept, there was interest from miners to build a full commercial unit – which has happened now.

The prototype was ultimately to test the enabling cutting technology, whereby this element was retrofitted to a medium-sized roadheader for manoeuvrability. What Komatsu has done now is fully embed it into a system more like a continuous miner, which has the cutting arm, ground handling shovel & collector and the rest of the body to put it into a full production, continuous operation. It is now going to be part of the production process, as opposed to just testing the cutting aspect.

IM: Considering the end goal of this project is to evaluate the type and number of applications for which hard-rock cutting is suitable across industry (not just at Garson and the McConnell orebody), why did you select the Komatsu HRCM?

LM: It’s really about the Komatsu DynaCut Technology, which, for us, is an extremely low energy process for cutting the hard rock compared with, say, a TBM.

At the same time, what attracts us is the ability to integrate it with existing infrastructure within our current process at the mine – bolters, trucks, LHDs, etc. It is not about fully redesigning the mine to implement this technology.

This trial is that first step to really prove and understand the Komatsu DynaCut Technology in terms of dealing with cutting our relative hard rock in Sudbury. In that regard, the Komatsu technology provided the best technical opportunities for the conditions at hand.

IM: When the machine gets going in Australia, what hardness of rock will it be cutting in the hard-rock stage? How does this compare with Garson?

LM: Cadia is a rock ranging around 200 MPa, whereas in Sudbury we would be looking around 250 MPa. That’s when you talk about Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) of the rock.

When you start looking at this undercutting technology, there are a few other aspects you need to consider. This includes rock toughness – the ability to resist a crack when a tensile force is applied, sort of like a jackhammer – and brittleness – how much energy that rock can absorb before it breaks.

Ultimately, we are working with Komatsu to understand how we should adapt an undercutting technology for our mines, and what the key parameters to consider are. At this stage, UCS seems to be the benchmark in the industry, but I think there will be a lot more considerations to come out of this project.

IM: What are the reasons for applying the technology at Garson? Were other areas in Sudbury considered?

AC: The priority for us was to have a shallow, low stress ground environment to start off with. At the same time, these are significant machines that would have to be disassembled if you were going down a shaft, which would be complicated. We have ramp access at Garson which makes things easier.

The other point is that Garson is an operating mine so we have got the facilities that can support the project; everything from removing the rock to ground support, service installation and surface infrastructure.

IM: How widespread do you think hard-rock cutting could be across the underground industry? Could it eventually become a mainstream method to compete with drill and blast?

LM: This is the ultimate question. I would like to say yes, it will become mainstream. It is our intention to really develop and prove that it can not only compete with drill and blast, but ultimately improve on it. This will see, in the future, an application for both mechanised hard-rock cutting and drill and blast.

You are going to need to look at fundamental KPIs such as safety, productivity and the cost associated with that productivity.

The focus now is to mature the cutting technology and start to develop the production or the process that goes with underground development beyond just cutting rock.

When developing around sensitive areas where you require low disturbance, hard-rock cutting will be important, as it will be in highly seismic ground. Then, if the unit cost of operating these machines gets low enough, you can start to assess orebodies that were previously not viable. At the same time, it is an electrified process so enables the industry to accelerate some of the decarbonisation plans for underground mining.

IM: Anything else to add on the subject?

LM: I think it’s fair to say, there will be no ‘one-size-fits-all’ solution when it comes to hard-rock cutting. Different OEMs are going to develop and mature solutions and there will be applications for each of them, but we have got a long way to go to really understand that as an industry.

The ultimate goal is to get that industry collaboration between OEMs and industry going to ensure solutions are developed that show a way forward for the sector.

This Q&A will feature in the annual continuous cutting and rapid development focus, soon to be published in the IM November-December 2020 issue. Photo courtesy of Komatsu Mining

Newcrest leverages Eriez HydroFloat tech to help boost Cadia output

Having installed the first full-scale HydroFloat™ cells for the recovery of coarse composited copper and gold at Newcrest’s Cadia Valley operation in New South Wales, Australia, in 2018, Eriez is about to help the miner boost output at the operation.

Today, the Newcrest Board approved two projects moving to the execution phase, being Stage 2 of the Cadia Expansion project and the Lihir Front End Recovery project, in PNG.

The Stage 2 Cadia Expansion project primarily comprises the addition of a second coarse ore flotation circuit in Concentrator 1 (graphic above), using Eriez’s HydroFloat technology, and equipment upgrades in Concentrator 2.

These changes are expected to see plant capacity go from 33 Mt/y to 35 Mt/y, while life of mine gold and copper recoveries could increase by 3.5% and 2.7%, respectively. Alongside this, the company was expecting a A$22/oz ($16/oz) drop in its all-in sustaining costs.

An increase in throughput capacity in Concentrator 2 from 7 Mt/y to 9 Mt/y will be achieved through crushing, grinding, cyclone, pumps and flotation upgrades; while the installation of the second Coarse Ore Flotation circuit on Concentrator 1 and additional upgrades to Concentrator 1 will facilitate an increase in throughput capacity to up to 26 Mt/y, the company said.

“Stage 1, which is already in execution, was designed to maintain production continuity at Cadia through the development of PC2-3 (the next cave development) and increase the processing capacity to 33 Mt/y,” Newcrest said. “Stage 1 comprises an upgrade to the materials handling system and debottlenecking of the Concentrator 1 comminution circuit.”

The rate of ore mined from Cadia is expected to vary over time according to draw rates, cave maturity and cave interaction as further caves are developed, according to Newcrest. From the 2027 financial year onwards, life of mine Cadia mining rates are generally expected to be in the range of 33-35 Mt/y, with an average of 34 Mt/y used for financial evaluation purposes, the company said. Higher mine production rates may be possible, subject to further studies.

At throughput rates of 34 Mt/y, gold recovery improvements from Stages 1 and 2 are expected to achieve LOM gold recoveries of 80.3% and LOM copper recoveries of 85.2% compared to Stage 1 baselines of 76.8% for gold and 82.5% for copper.

The estimated capital cost for Stage 2 is A$175 million, A$5 million lower than the October 2019 estimate, according to Newcrest, which added that timing for delivery remains on schedule, with completion expected late in its 2022 financial year.

The Lihir Front End Recovery project, meanwhile, primarily comprises the installation of flash flotation and additional cyclone capacity, as well as cyclone efficiency upgrades, to improve grinding classification and reduce gold losses through the flotation circuits, Newcrest said.

The flash flotation and cyclone upgrades target the following process improvements:

  • Implement flash flotation to reduce mineral fines generated from overgrinding and send the higher-grade concentrate stream to the autoclaves; and
  • Improve cyclone efficiency to achieve a reduction in unliberated coarse mineral particles entering the cyclone overflow, which are not recovered in conventional flotation.

This is projected to result in LOM gold recoveries increasing by 1.2% and incremental LOM gold production increasing by 244,000 oz. It came with an estimated capital cost of A$61 million.

Newcrest to apply ‘unique technical capabilities’ to copper-gold mine in BC, Canada

Newcrest Mining has entered into an agreement to acquire a 70% joint venture interest in Imperial Metals’ Red Chris copper-gold mine and surrounding tenements in British Columbia, Canada, for $806.5 million.

The deal will see Newcrest become Red Chris operator, in charge of deciding how to exploit the copper-gold porphyry open-pit mine.

Newcrest said the acquisition of Red Chris was “a measured entry” into North America and aligned with its stated strategic goals of building a global portfolio of Tier 1 orebodies where Newcrest can “deliver value through application of its unique operating capabilities”.

Red Chris comes with a mineral resource of 20 Moz of gold and 5.9 Mt of copper. The acquired property comprises 23,142 ha of land with 77 mineral tenures, five of which are mining leases, and sits within the traditional territory of the Tahltan Nation.

Newcrest Managing Director and CEO, Sandeep Biswas, said: “We are delighted to add this asset into the Newcrest portfolio. Following due diligence, we believe we can bring our unique technical capabilities to unlock the full value potential of this orebody in one of the premier gold districts in the world.

“We have identified a clear pathway to potentially turn this orebody into a Tier 1 operation. The geology of Red Chris is similar to our Cadia orebodies in Australia and we will be applying our considerable experience in exploration, open-pit mining, caving and processing to maximise the value of Red Chris and the opportunities in the surrounding region. We look at this opportunity in the same way as we do with Cadia, where we have proven we can create significant value from deep underground porphyry orebodies.”

Following the intensive due diligence process Biswas mentioned, Newcrest said it has a two-stage plan to deliver value from the acquisition:

Stage one will see the company apply its “Edge transformation approach” to the existing Red Chris open-pit mine and processing plant.

“Newcrest believes it can add significant value to Red Chris by applying the same Edge mind-set and approach that has led to significant operating improvements across all Newcrest operations over the last five years,” the company said.

Examples of where successful changes have been implemented to safely accelerate cash maximisation include process plant optimisation (debottlenecking, recovery uplifts, process control, improving concentrate quality), mine optimisation (improving orebody knowledge, grade control, fleet management system, mine planning) and supply chain cost reduction, according to Newcrest.

As part of this stage, Newcrest said it will initiate an extensional drilling programme.

“Newcrest intends to optimise the current open-pit mine plan and pursue initiatives to improve operational productivities and milling recoveries,” Newcrest said.

The current open-pit mine has an existing 11 Mt/y processing plant and associated infrastructure which allows ‘brownfield’ expansion options in the future, it added.

Stage 2 will see the company apply “industry leading technology”.

The company said: “Newcrest believes it can add significant shareholder value by applying technology to Red Chris that it has successfully applied at its other operations.”

Examples include block caving – “Newcrest believes the orebody has the potential to become a high margin bulk underground block cave. Newcrest will accelerate the necessary drilling and studies. Newcrest intends to conduct studies and review the ore reserve of the Red Chris operation to allow for reporting in accordance with JORC 2012 to take into account the potential transition to a future block cave operation.”

Coarse ore flotation could also be considered, the company said.

“Having demonstrated the recovery benefits of coarse ore flotation at Cadia, Newcrest will look to apply this technology to Red Chris,” Newcrest said.

And, then there is the application of one of the most popular technologies today: ore sensing and sorting, of which Newcrest said: “Positive results from trials underway at Telfer may lead to this technology being deployed at Red Chris.”

In terms of exploration, Newcrest said it would apply its experience in deep underground brownfield and greenfield exploration on the existing orebody and the broader land package to potential uncover more tonnes of copper and ounces of gold.

“Newcrest has identified opportunities to expand Red Chris’s mineral resources along strike and at depth in areas where there has been limited deep drilling to date. Historical shallow drilling indicates that there is also potential for further deep discoveries to be made in the larger tenement package.

“Newcrest will be targeting prospective regions beyond the current mine looking for further porphyry centres including small footprint, higher-grade gold-rich porphyry systems leveraging knowledge gained from Cadia which has similar geological features,” Newcrest said.

Red Chris, on the northern edge of the Skeena Mountains, commenced construction in 2012 and was completed in November 2014 for a total cost of C$661 million ($492 million). Commercial production commenced in July 2015 and, in the first nine month of 2018, the mine produced 20,320 t of copper and 29,569 oz of gold.

Jacobs to handle underground materials work for Cadia expansion study

Jacobs has been awarded a contract by Newcrest Mining to provide underground materials handling services as part of the expansion feasibility study at Cadia, one of Australia’s largest gold mining operations.

This contract award builds on Jacobs mining and minerals business’ long history of working with Newcrest across the company’s Cadia Valley operations in New South Wales, Jacobs said.

Jacobs Mining, Minerals and Technology Senior Vice President, Andrew Berryman, said: “During the previous study phase, our mining and minerals experts helped identify a low capital intensity solution as part of an integrated team. By embracing an owners’ mindset and applying our experience in underground mining, materials handling and expansion projects, our integrated approach has the potential to deliver an impressive return on capital for Newcrest.”

The prefeasibility study on an expansion at Cadia envisaged the plant and underground materials handling upgrade costing A$58 million ($41 million). This was part of a bigger A$598 million project to incrementally increase throughput from the base case of 30 Mt/y to 33 Mt/y. Newcrest said that options to further debottleneck to 35 Mt/y would be assessed during the feasibility study.

Newcrest rolling out GE Mining collision avoidance system at Lihir

Newcrest Mining’s Lihir gold operation in Papua New Guinea is, this month, due to go live with a full installation of GE Mining’s collision avoidance system (CAS).

This follows the CAS being fitted to equipment in the Telfer open-pit mine (Western Australia) and the gradual installation of units at Lihir. Since installation 12 months ago at Telfer, vehicle-to-vehicle collisions have reduced by 33%, Newcrest said in its recently-published sustainability report.

Proximity detection technology has been progressively rolled out across the company following incidents at its operations involving collisions or near misses between vehicles and other vehicles, vehicles and pedestrians, and vehicles and infrastructure.

Supported by Newcrest’s Executive Committee, a working group comprising representatives from Newcrest’s Group Safety, Technology & Innovation, Group Supply, and key stakeholders from each of its sites, developed a strategy to deploy the technology and identified solutions suitable for use in surface and underground mining, supplied by GE Mining and Newtrax Mineprox, respectively.

Newcrest started implementing GE Mining’s CAS at Lihir back in October last year. Around 1,500 employees were to be protected in addition to up to 250 vehicles.

In addition to the GE Mining contract, Telfer and Gosowong (Indonesia) underground operations have awarded tenders to Newtrax to deploy Mineprox on the mobile mining fleets. Contractor mobilisation at Telfer commenced in September 2018.

And there could be more contract awards on the way.

Newcrest said: “Given the anticipated automation and teleremote system programme of works at Cadia (New South Wales), the business has adjusted the criteria for its proximity detection solution and is expected to award a contract soon.”