Tag Archives: Turkey

Eldorado Gold’s Efemçukuru mine to test Normet battery-electric vehicle

Eldorado Gold’s underground mining battery-electric vehicle journey is set to begin next month, with the company imminently awaiting the arrival of a Normet SmartDrive concrete transportation vehicle at its Efemçukuru gold mine.

The company has reviewed the potential for the use of battery-electric vehicles at its Lamaque underground gold mine in Canada in the past, but this is the first official trial of zero emission mobile equipment the company will conduct. This aligns with the company’s recently announced target of mitigating GHG emissions by 30%, from 2020 levels, by 2030 on a ‘business as usual’ basis; equal to approximately 65,000 t of carbon dioxide equivalent. To achieve this target Eldorado is focused on pursuing decarbonisation through four key pathways including: measuring and monitoring; operational efficiencies and continuous improvement; technologies, processes and energy generation; and energy procurement and strategy.

Set to arrive at the mine, in Izmir Province, western Turkey, at the end of the month, the Normet Utimec MF 500 SD transmixer will be tested in a combination of ramp and flat drifts over the latter part of April.

Efemçukuru, a high-grade epithermal deposit, will provide a good test for the machine. While reasonably shallow in terms of depth, the narrow-vein mine has four declines (SOS, MOS, NOS and KBNW), each covering approximately 400 m of strike extent. These declines have 15% inclination, while flat drifts with inclinations ranging from 0-5% will provide a good platform for overall speed.

A spokesperson for the gold miner told IM that the machine, which has already been purchased, will be tested against assumptions provided by the manufacturer for rates of charging and discharging. The machine is then intended to be used in an operational capacity.

“Battery charging rates will be tested for charging from the existing grid, from a quick charging station and from downhill braking,” the team leading the project said. “Moreover, the battery usage rate will be tested for driving in uphill (15%) and flat (0-5%) galleries, against assumptions.”

Testing will also involve the comparison of performance of both battery-electric and diesel machines in uphill tramming, with the company expecting the battery-electric transmixer to outperform the diesel-equivalent in these head-to-head tests due to the machine’s high torque.

The Utimec MF 500 Transmixer SD (pictured here at Normet’s outdoor test track at its Iisalmi factory) has a 4.4 cu.m concrete carrying capacity, and comes with a combined power rating of 200 kW alongside a maximum tramming speed of 20 km/h.

Normet says the machine is designed for fast and safe concrete transportation in underground mines and tunnels where the tramming height is at least 2.4 m. The concrete drum rotation is electrically controlled and the speed ranges between 0-13 rpm.

Tested at both the Normet factory and the First Quantum polymetallic Pyhäsalmi mine in Finland, the MF Transmixer 500 SD has displayed a payback period of 2-3 years based on the machine completing a two-hour cycle that involves a 3 km journey on a 1:7 decline running at 15 km/h with the bowl rotating, one hour of unloading with the bowl rotating at 15 kW, and an uphill unloaded haul of 3 km at 10 km/h with no bowl rotation.

Eldorado said the MF Transmixer 500 SD will be at the mine site shortly, with training coordinated by Normet taking place in April ahead of the trial.

Metso Outotec calcination plant to help Hekimhan Madencilik hit siderite production goals

Metso Outotec has signed an agreement for the delivery of a siderite calcination plant to Hekimhan Madencilik, a subsidiary of Koloğlu Holding, located in Malatya, Turkey.

The value of the order is approximately €23 million ($26 million), and it has been booked in the company’s Metals’ Q1/2022 orders received.

Metso Outotec’s scope of delivery consists of system design, equipment engineering, manufacturing and supply, and advisory services for the installation of the plant with an annual capacity of 600,000 t of calcined siderite. The key components of the system include a rotary kiln, cooler, and heat recovery and gas cleaning equipment. The plant start-up is expected in the second half of 2023.

“Our solution will enable Hekimhan Madencilik to achieve their production goals,” Attaul Ahmad, Vice President of the Ferrous & Heat Transfer business line at Metso Outotec, said. “It was through our strong customer relationship and familiarity with Hekimhan’s processes that we were able to introduce the Metso Outotec Rotary Calcining system and Heat Transfer experts to develop an optimal equipment and system solution for the client.”

Metso Outotec has previously supported the client with improvements to the operation of its existing calcining line.

Metso Outotec says it is a leading supplier of calcining systems with an installed base of over 1,500 rotary kilns, with its technology providing dependable process performance with an emphasis on optimising fuel efficiency and minimal emissions.

Kışladağ and Weir Minerals on the HPGR-backed gold recovery trail

The story that led to the installation of a Weir Minerals Enduron® high pressure grinding roll (HPGR) at Eldorado Gold’s Kışladağ heap leach operation in Turkey is a fascinating read, as well as a great example of the benefits of using such technology.

Back in March 2018, Eldorado announced it would suspend mining to evaluate processing options for the operation. This decision followed extensive laboratory tests that indicated gold recoveries would continue to trend downwards around the base of the open pit where mining was underway.

This suspension, plus further engineering and test work, led to the company advancing the potential development of a mill project. The transition away from its heap leaching roots to a possible mill and carbon-in-leach (CIL) process would have added significant capital costs and shortened the mine life significantly.

Before making this significant capital decision, Eldorado paused to take time to undertake the necessary technical work and sought the technical collaboration of Weir Minerals on a solution.

“It was a very challenging period,” George Burns, President & CEO of Eldorado Gold Corporation, told IM. “Kışladağ is a cornerstone asset in our portfolio. It required collaboration with our geologists, metallurgists, site teams and technology providers, including Weir, working together on a solution.”

(Credit: Eldorado Gold)

In late 2018, results showed increased recoveries from an extended leach cycle. Following a deeper understanding of the geometallurgical drivers of the sulphide component of the deposit, improved heap leach recoveries were realised by optimising the metallurgical conditions. With these improved recoveries confirmed, the heap leach plan was revised in early 2019. Eldorado announced plans to resume mining, crushing, stacking and heap leaching at Kışladağ, and suspended plans to build the processing plant.

The decision came following metallurgical test work on the material placed on the heap leach pad in 2018. Gold recovery had increasingly exceeded expectations throughout the year, providing a new, positive heap leaching outlook beyond the near term. At the same time, Eldorado worked with Weir Minerals on the potential use of an HPGR at the operation.

HPGR creates a finer particle size, which helps to liberate the gold particles, resulting in increased recoveries.

An improved understanding of the leaching process on its low-grade ore and the potential of this cost-effective grinding addition provided it with the confidence to continue heap leaching beyond the short-term time horizon previously envisaged.

“Our collaboration with Weir on this effort is an excellent example of how Eldorado collaborates with technology leaders and seeks out solutions,” Burns said. “We believe this is a strength of the company’s core business values. We are agile and flexible ‒ a good example in both business and operations to find innovative, technical solutions and demonstrate prudent capital discipline. Ultimately, the solution was the best technical and economic decision for Eldorado.”

Testing, testing, testing

“The relationship between Weir Minerals’ and Kışladağ goes back to 2013,” Bjorn Dierx, Global Product Manager Enduron HPGR, told IM.

The OEM had been provided with samples on several occasions to investigate different flowsheet possibilities.

“The benefits of HPGR in heap leaching recovery were known by the site’s crew,” he said.

Enduron technology was tested at the quaternary crushing stage before heap leaching, in the quaternary crushing stage before ball milling and at the tertiary crushing directly before heap leaching.

All the time, the mine operator, Tuprag, Eldorado Gold’s subsidiary in Turkey, was evaluating the impact on gold recovery.

Although HPGR in closed circuit with screening was also tested, most of the test campaigns were focused on a configuration with so-called ‘Partial Product Recycling’ (PPR), according to Serhat Onol, Weir Minerals Senior Process Engineer.

“This system includes splitter plates underneath the rolls which ‘cut’ a proportion of the product discharge and reverts this back to the HPGR head feed,” he explained. “This recycle stream can be adjusted online to adapt the product grind towards the downstream requirements.”

PPR is not an option for every application but for Tuprag – due to the feed and desired product size – all specifications showed it was the best route.

“The hybrid solution with screening serves to increase the flexibility and to control the circulating load to the HPGR,” Onol said.

With capacity rates of around 4,200 t/h at Kışladağ, the screening area requirement was reasonably high, he explained.

“The hybrid solution uses screening only for the recirculating stream: the centre product of the HPGR reports to downstream leaching, whereas the rest is recirculated,” he said. This not only removes the fines re-entering the HPGR and, thus, reduces the circulating load, but also avoids the over-grinding of fines before leaching.

The PPR option, itself, is a very flexible operation, with the adjustable discharge splitter plates providing the best circuit flexibility in terms of throughput and product size, according to Onol.

(Credit: Eldorado Gold)

Great expectations

With the main driver of the HPGR installation being an improved gold recovery scenario, leading to an increased heap leach life, the pressure has been on Weir Minerals to come up with the goods.

The final flowsheet, which includes a 2.4 m diameter by 2.2 m long Enduron HPGR with the capacity to process 4,200 t/h, is much simpler than the existing circuit, according to Dierx, with less equipment to maintain, control and monitor.

“A single Enduron HPGR will replace all of the five existing tertiary crushers of which liners would have an average lifetime of circa-one month with a crusher availability of 85%,” he said. “The HPGR tyres have a wear life close to 18 months, with the HPGR achieving a high asset availability of more than 95%.

“Additionally, as a result of the HPGR combined with the hybrid PPR system, the existing four tertiary screens are also being decommissioned.”

Not only has the HPGR alleviated the use of this equipment, it is also set to boost that bottom line gold recovery.

“During testing, it was determined that the circuit configuration and HPGR operating conditions, such as pressure, have a direct influence on the gold recovery,” Dierx said. “The current expectation is that the average recovery increase after the commissioning of the Enduron solution will be approximately 4%.”

This could bring gold recovery to approximately 56%, as was declared in a 2020 press release from Eldorado that highlighted a 15-year mine life at Kışladağ with an average annual production of 160,000 oz.

In action

One of the largest brownfield HPGRs Weir Minerals has ever installed has just processed its first material at Kışladağ, which is testament to the hurdles both the Weir Minerals and Tuprag teams overcame during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic.

“Despite the challenges we faced during the pandemic, we were able to fully install the machine, including pre-commissioning, in only 22 weeks,” Dierx said.

(Credit: Eldorado Gold)

This was achieved by minimising the amount of work carried out on site via pre-site testing and modular HPGR assembly.

“As the available footprint in existing sites is limited, the unique Enduron design (length:diameter ratio) not only improves the grinding efficiency but also allows for easier implementation with less civil requirements,” Dierx said.

The machine has the potential to be digitally connected to the Weir Synertrex® IoT platform where operators can benefit from direct access to maintenance specialists, who will be monitoring performance and provide necessary operating guidance.

And the Weir Minerals team is confident more Enduron HPGR installations will follow the one at Kışladağ.

“We are very proud of the product’s recognition by our customers as the Enduron HPGR has been selected for all major greenfield HPGR projects in the hard-rock space,” Dierx said. “Despite all the key Enduron differentiators, it is not only merely about the product but particularly the wider experience across Weir Minerals in both the upstream and downstream processes via our wide product portfolio.

“Particularly in these brownfield applications, the system is not operating in a vacuum and every process change influences how the overall circuit works. This requires tacit knowledge, which Weir Minerals holds across their global teams.”

Eldorado’s Burns concluded: “We are pleased to implement a solution that increases gold recovery and supports a 15-year mine life at Kışladağ, allowing Eldorado to continue to provide employment and economic opportunity in the region, as well as provide a solid foundation for future growth.

“Kışladağ has been the cornerstone asset of Eldorado for over a decade, producing over 3 Moz of gold and generating significant value for all stakeholders during that period. This project is a testament to our exceptional team and technology partners working together to execute in challenging circumstances during the pandemic.”

Epiroc to supply Turkey’s largest mining company with drills, loaders and trucks

Epiroc says it has won a large order for mining equipment from Eti Bakir in Turkey, which includes a variety of drill rigs, trucks and loaders.

The machines will be used to expand three underground copper mines – Kastamonu Küre, Artvin Murgul and Siirt Madenköywhile – making the operations as productive and safe as possible, the OEM says.

The equipment order is valued at approximately SEK140 million ($16 million) and was booked in the September quarter of 2021. In addition to the equipment, the customer has also ordered service, spare parts and consumables.

Helena Hedblom, Epiroc’s President and CEO, said: “Epiroc has a long-standing, strong partnership with Eti Bakir, and we are happy to play a key role as the company expands its operations while focusing on safety and productivity.”

“We are proud that 42 t underground trucks with ejector box in copper mines will be used for the first time in Turkey,” Gokhan Zengin, Eti Bakır Machine Manager, said. “Our cooperation with Epiroc has a long history; we also have a component agreement since six years and we started using Epiroc MD20 rock drills for underground operation development as of last year.”

The machines ordered include Boomer face drilling rigs, Simba production drilling rigs, Boltec rock reinforcement rigs, Scooptram loaders and Minetruck haul trucks. Most of the units will be equipped with Epiroc’s telematics system Certiq, which allows for intelligent monitoring of machine performance and productivity in real time, and some of the machines will have Epiroc’s Rig Control System, RCS, installed, which makes them ready for automation and remote control.

RPMGlobal helps Gübre Fabrikaları achieve gold reserve first at Gübretaş Söğüt in Turkey

RPMGlobal’s Consulting & Advisory division has expanded its local presence in Turkey in conjunction with the successful completion of a resource and reserve estimate for the local Gübretaş Söğüt gold project.

The company’s local Advisory division has grown its in-country capabilities, having welcomed Egemen Saygın to the role of Senior Mining Engineer and Tunahan Kılıç in the position of Consulting Geologist.

Collectively, the pair bring a high level of industry experience across exploration, operation and consulting to the Advisory team, further positioning RPMGlobal for success in the next phase of its market growth within Turkey, the company said.

RPMGlobal says it recently completed the first resource and reserve public disclosure for the high profile Gübretaş Söğüt gold project on the Borsa Istanbul Stock Exchange (BIST), in line with the recommendations of both the JORC Code and UMREK Code.

This marks the very first time a Turkish-listed company released a statement of mineral reserves on the BIST under UMREK, which was made compulsory in 2019, according to the company.

RPMGlobal was engaged as an independent estimator for Gübre Fabrikaları’s emerging gold project, considered one of the largest high-grade undeveloped gold projects in Turkey with significant upside potential.

Philippe Baudry, RPMGlobal’s Executive General Manager—Advisory Services, said: “The company is continuing to see opportunities supporting Turkish companies in a number of areas as the country’s mining industry undergoes a resurgence.

“Our team of experts on the ground are fielding queries from companies for our knowledge and support in the preparation of mining studies and compliance reports which is a reflection of our solid reputation and quality offerings in these important areas of project development.”

Baudry added: “The recent expansion of our Turkey team reflects a critical part of our strategy to grow our market share across the region through the provision of a strong local presence, and our Turkish office provides the perfect base to serve clients in the region around Turkey while giving them access to RPMGlobal’s global capability.”

RPMGlobal remains committed to providing expert advice and solutions to Turkey’s mining industry, recently becoming a corporate member of local industry organisation YERMAM (The Earth Sciences, Mining and Metallurgy Professionals Association of Turkey). It is also one of the few consulting firms with its own in-house UMREK Qualified Persons in Turkey, leading to increasing market demand for the company’s expertise in the preparation of JORC and UMREK compliance reports and NI-43-101 for equity market reporting, it said.

Baudry said Turkey’s growing pipeline of projects and strong levels of exploration would lead to continued acceleration of demand for the company’s expertise in independent assessment, governance and financier due diligence services.

Centerra’s Öksüt gold mine makes commercial leap

Centerra Gold has declared that its Öksüt gold mine in Turkey has achieved commercial production.

The achievement, made as of May 31, 2020, comes four months after the first gold pour on January 31.

Since the inaugural pour, the mine has continued to ramp up mining, crushing, stacking, irrigation of the heap leach pad, as well as the operation of the adsorption-desorption recovery plant and gold production, Centerra said.

Scott Perry, President and CEO, said: “Commercial production at Öksüt marks a major milestone for the company. Öksüt was delivered on time and under budget.

“Centerra now has three producing operations which are expected to generate meaningful free cash flow as we continue to deliver growth and value for shareholders.”

Öksüt was planned as a conventional truck and shovel open-pit heap leach mining operation with a stacking rate of 11,000 t/d. The initial eight-year mine life was expected to process around 1.2 million contained ounces of gold from two open pits, the Keltepe pit and the smaller Güneytepe pit.

Centerra Gold’s Öksüt mine comes to life with first pour

Centerra Gold has achieved the first gold pour from its Öksüt mine, in Turkey, on schedule and ahead of budget.

Additionally, the project achieved a significant safety milestone last week, achieving two million work hours lost time injury free.

Scott Perry, President and Chief Executive Officer of Centerra, said: “This is an important milestone for the project and for the growth of the company as Öksüt is now our third operating mine and our third source of gold production going forward. Reaching the first gold pour is a testament to the dedication and hard work that our Öksüt team has put in to reach this goal safely.”

He added: “This milestone would not have been achieved without the initial conviction and perseverance from the Centerra exploration team given that the Öksüt mine, originally started as a greenfield exploration venture in 2009.”

Öksüt was planned as a conventional truck and shovel open-pit heap leach mining operation with a stacking rate of 11,000 t/d. The initial eight-year mine life was expected to process around 1.2 million contained ounces of gold from two open pits, the Keltepe pit and the smaller Güneytepe pit.

Halbach & Braun to help modernise Turkey’s Zonguldak coal mining region

A delegation from Turkey’s Zonguldak mining region has signed a cooperation contract with Halbach & Braun Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co that could see the hard coal operation double output and modernises its plant.

According to Halbach & Braun, Turkey’s current energy development plan, which aims to reduce its dependence on energy imports, involves the intensification of coal mining in the Zonguldak region of Turkey; a plan that requires investment in state-of-the-art mining technology.

Against this backdrop, the visit organised by Zonguldak eV Europa of a high-ranking delegation from the Zonguldak mining region and representatives of state politics – represented by Saadet Oruç, Chief Advisor to the President – to Halbach & Braun took place (pictured).

The mining equipment supplier from Hattingen has a strong market position in Turkey and, since last year, has been able to offer mine operators a considerably expanded range of products, it said.

Dr Dietrich Braun, Managing Partner of Halbach & Braun, said: “Our classic core competencies are crushing and conveying – underground and surface mining. Thanks to the participation of the Chinese Yangquan Coal Group in our company, we can now also offer complete range of longwall equipment including shields and shearer loaders.

“We adapt the basic design of the plants to our high-quality standards and to the individual requirements of our customers.”

Turkey’s state-owned mine operator TTK has enlisted the help of the company and, during the company tour in Hattingen, Muharrem Kiraz, Deputy Md of TTK, said: “Our goal is 100% mechanical extraction with modern and highly productive plants from Halbach & Braun.”

In the coming years Zonguldak is to be developed into an energy centre, according to the Germany-based company.

The Ruhr area of Germany could serve as a model here – with the difference that coal production will be expanded instead of discontinued, the company said.

Metin Demir, Chairman of the Regional Chamber of Industry and Commerce, confirmed this: “We have a 180-year mining tradition, and now we are shaping our future. Together with the players in business, associations and politics and also with the employee representatives, we have founded a development association for the region that expressly provides for cooperation with German companies under our cooperation partner Halbach & Braun. We would like to profit from their competence and also from the experiences of the Ruhr area.”

Multotec to expand Turkey product footprint with Turbo Ltd appointment

Mineral processing specialist Multotec has appointed Istanbul-based Turbo Ltd as its new agent in Turkey, Bart Malan, Multotec’s International Business Development Manager for Eurasia, confirmed.

Turbo Ltd is active in the mining, metallurgy, construction, petroleum and natural gas sectors, according to Multotec, with a strong focus on aftersales service.

While Multotec is not a newcomer to Turkey, having supplied a range of equipment over the past 19 year, Malan says there is a renewed focus on this region with the intention to expand its product footprint significantly.

“Over the years, Multotec equipment has been installed in the chrome, gold and coal sectors, and, through the appointment of Turbo Ltd, we will be able to extend our reach and include a larger range of proven Multotec solutions to the mining and minerals processing industry in Turkey,” Malan said.

He says Turbo Ltd, a company established 30 years ago, has a strong technical foundation underpinned by the requisite facilities to support its wide customer base.

“Having skilled and qualified engineers, as well as a strong support team and well-resourced technical capability, was a critical consideration when appointing an agent in this important region as this, we believe, is what is required to provide the level of support to Multotec customers,” he says.

“We also plan to collaborate with Turbo Ltd in setting up a fully operational laboratory in Turkey,” he continues. “This will give us the advantage of offering mineral test work and sampling for customers.”

This facility will assist Turbo Ltd in its plant flow designs, supporting customers in maximising the efficiency of their mineral processing operations, according to Malan.

Multotec said: “While Multotec has historically marketed mainly cyclones and spiral concentrators in Turkey, the future will see a growing range of equipment include samplers, screening systems, flotation components, pumps and magnetic separators.”

Malan concluded: “We believe the Turkish market holds considerable potential for Multotec and we will work closely with our new agent to grow our market share.”

Turkey’s Mikroman ups product quality, throughput with TOMRA ore sorters

Turkish quartz miner, Mikroman has been able to both improve product quality and increase capacity at its three processing plants in the country thanks to the installation of four TOMRA Sorting Solutions high-capacity sensor-based sorting systems, the technology company said.

Mikroman mines quartz from its open-pit operations in Turkey, with the company running its own mineral processing plants for crushing, washing and sorting the raw materials.

In 2018, the company installed a TOMRA PRO Secondary LASER sorting machine in two of its three plants, in Muğla and Aydin Provinces. The third plant, in Usak Province, invested in a LASER sorter plus a COLOR sorter, according to TOMRA.

TOMRA says: “In addition to being the most efficient way to sort particles, sorting machines deliver a wide range of commercial advantages to industrial mineral sorting businesses. These include a decrease in mining and haulage costs; reductions in energy and water consumption; improvements in quality and productivity; and increases in recovery.”

The company added: “Sensor-based sorters also make it possible to significantly increase the lifetime of a mining operation.”

TOMRA’s Area Sales Manager, Jens-Michael Bergmann, said TOMRA’s COLOR sorting machines employ a high-resolution camera that recognises materials based on their color. “Rocks with surficial and visible contamination are detected and sorted out, resulting in better recovery rates and higher quality than is possible with manual sorting,” he said.

“Our unique multi-channel LASER sorter delivers even greater benefits for Mikroman in achieving the highest purity levels and maximum profits. The scattering effect of multiple laser beams distinguishes a rock containing quartz from its identically coloured neighbor. Under the laser beam, a pure or non-contaminated quartz rock registers as a glow crystal, whereas similar looking rocks with no quartz content remain dark, without any visible scattering.”

Mikroman combined these two technologies for best results and recovery, according to TOMRA.

Of all three Mikroman processing plants, the one in Usak Province demands the most precise mineral sorting. Before sorting, the feed material is screened by size, with the 40-100 mm stones treated with a higher priority and stones measuring 20-40 mm in size sent down the sorting line in a separate batch. Here, the combination of a TOMRA COLOR sorter and TOMRA LASER sorter is used to differentiate products according to four predetermined qualities. These are:

  • White and light grey quartz, with low iron oxide content, for use as artificial stones (A);
  • Grey and yellow quartz, for use by the glass industry (B);
  • Coloured quartz, for ferrosilicon used by the metallurgical sector (C), and;
  • Coloured gravel (D), also for ferrosilicon, currently goes with the waste.

After crushing and washing (through a trommel screen), Mikroman’s sorting process consists of four key steps. In the first step, minerals are screened by size, with only stones measuring 40-100 mm going through to the next stage.

In the second step, the LASER machine sorts out the waste and coloured gravel from the quartz pieces at about 70 t/h capacity. In the third stage, the remaining minerals are sorted into two streams: one for colored quartz; the other for the white and light grey quartz, and the grey and yellow quartz. Finally, these two streams are hand-sorted into product types, with some further removal of remaining gravel and waste.

“These precise distinctions, resulting in higher product quality, were not possible before the acquisition of the TOMRA machines,” TOMRA said, adding that its service team worked on-site with Mikroman, as it does with all customers, to optimise the performance of the machines.

Nazmi Çetin, Mine and plant Manager at Mikroman, said: “Before having TOMRA sorters, we were worried about quality and low capacity, but now we have achieved the desired quality standard and we have seen a decrease in waste, which means productivity has increased. The system design is quite successful and the TOMRA service team are good at their job.”